Test 4 Renal Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test 4 Renal Deck (41)
1

relaxed when bladder is at rest and flexed during urination

Detrusor muscle

2

allows the bladder to stretch

transitional epithelium

3

what percent of renal blood flow does renal blood flow receive

20-25 percent

4

The filtration of the plasma per unit of time is known as _______ which is directly related to the perfusion pressure in the glomerular

glomerular filtration rate GFR

5

a local mechanism that tends to keep the rate of glomerular perfusion and there for the GFR fairly constant over a range of arterial pressures between 80 and 180 mmHg

autoregulation

6

as arterial pressure declines, the stretch on the afferent arteriolar smooth muscle decreases and the arterial relaxes, causing an increase in glomerular perfusion, an increase in arteriolar pressure causes the arteriole smooth muscle to contract and decrease glomerular perfusion

myogenic mechanism

7

as the GFR in an individual nephron increases or decreases, the macula dense cells in the distal tubule sense the increasing or decreasing amounts of filtered sodium, when sodium filtration increases the macula dense cells stimulate afferent arteriolar vasoconstriction to decrease GFR

Tubuloglomerular feedback

8

The innervation of the kidney come primarily from the what?

celiac ganglion and greater splanchnic nerve

9

released during heart failure or when atrium is stretched
Inhibits renin and aldosterone
Causes a decrease in water retention

ANP

10

what does the proximal tube reabsorb

Na
K

11

what does the proximal tube secrete

H
Foreign substances

12

what does the distal tube reabsorb

H2O (ADH required)

13

what does the distal tube secrete

K
Urea
H
NH3
some drugs

14

what does the collecting duct reabsorb

H20 (ADH required)

15

is an end product of protein metabolism and is the major constitute of urine
Can regulate pH

urea

16

important for diluting and concentrating urine
Epi and nore epi

catecholamines

17

secreted from the kidneys to produce diuresis during period of hypertension

urodilantin

18

is any agent that enhances the flow of urine
Interefers with renal sodium reabsorption

diuretic

19

important for calcium absorption in the intestines

Vitamine D

20

stimulates the production of RBCs

erythropoietin

21

incomplete opening of the bladder neck during urination resulting in partial obstruction of urinary flow

bladder neck dyssynergia

22

refers to the dysfunction of the urinary bladder due to disease of the central nervous system or peripheral nerves involved on the control of micturition

neurogenic bladder

23

lesions above C2 cause

detrusor hyperreflexia

24

lesions between C2 and S1 cause

detrusor hyperflexia with vesicosphincter dyssynergia

25

lesions below S1 cause

detrusor areflexia, with or without urethral sphincter incompetence

26

is inflammation of the urinary epithelium following invasion of colonization by some pathogen within the urinary tract

UTI

27

inflammation of the bladder

cystitis

28

acute infection of the ureter, renal pelvis, and or renal parenchyma (bacterial travel)

acute pyelonephritis

29

persistent or recurring episodes of pyelonephritis
Risk increases in individuals with renal infections and some ape of obstructive pathologic condition

chronic pyelonephritis

30

Inflammation of the glomerulus
Inflammation of the small blood vessels in the kidneys

Glomerulonephritis

31

Decreased glomerular filtration rate leased to

Elevated plasma creatinine and urea
Reduced creatinine clearance

32

Increased globular capillary permeability and loss of negative ionic charge barrier result in

passage of plasma proteins (albumin) into the urine

33

is the excretion of 3.0g or more of protein in the urine per day

nephrotic syndrome

34

clinic manifestations of nephrotic syndrome

hypoalbuminemia
Edema
Hyperlipidemia
Lipiduria

35

caused by impaired renal blood flow
GFR declines due to the decrease in filtration pressure

Prerenal acute renal failure

36

is the most common cause of intrarenal renal failure

Acute tubular necrosis

37

occurs with urinary tract obstructions that affect the kidneys bilaterally

psotrenal acute renal failure

38

is the irreversible loss of renal function that affects nearly all organ systems

chronic renal failure

39

the presence of abnormal quantities of protein in the urine
May indicate damage to kidneys

Proteinuria

40

the production of abnormally small amounts of urine

Oliguria

41

excess amounts of sugar in urine

Glucosuria