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Flashcards in Test 2 pulmonary Deck (73)
1

where is a tracheotomy performed

between the 2nd and 3rd or
3rd and 4th ring

2

emergency airway

cricoidotomy

3

where is a caricoidotomy preformed

between thyroid and cricoid cartilages

4

traumatic or prolonged intubation or bronchoscope can lead to what

laryngospasm and or laryngeal edema

5

the ETT cuff can cause what

erosion and ulceration of the tracheal mucosa

6

if something is aspirated it is more likely to go down what side of the carina

the right side

7

muscles used for inspiratory breathing

diaphragm and external intercostals

8

inspiratory accessory muscles used for breathing

sternocleidomastoid and scalene

9

expiratory accessory muscles used for breathing

abdominal and internal intercostals

10

tendency of lungs to return to resting state

elastic recoil

11

distensibility of lung and chest wall

compliance

12

diseases that have decreased compliance

atelectasis
pneumonia
ARDS
fibrosis
pulmonary edema

13

disease that have increased compliance

Emphysema
pulmonary emboli

14

o2 and energy requirement for ventilation

Work of breathing

15

change in pressure by rate of flow

airway resistance

16

increased WOB can lead to what

respiratory muscle fatigue

17

ventilation that reaches alveoli adequate for metabolic demands

alveolar ventilation

18

defined by high PaCO2
hypercapnia

hypoventilation

19

defined by low PaCO2
hypocapnia

hyperventilation

20

a decrease in Va causes PaCO2 to

increase

21

a increase in Va cause PaCO2 to

decrease

22

side effects of increased PaCO2

altered mentation/level of consciousness
secondary hypoxemia

23

side effects of decreased PaCO2

lightheadedness

24

when hemoglobin molecules bind with oxygen

oxyhemoglobin is formed

25

oxyhemoglobin is formed in the lungs and is called

oxyhemoglobin association
hemoglobin saturation with oxygen

26

the process in which oxygen released from hemoglobin, occurs in the body tissue at the cellular level and is called

hemoglobin desaturation

27

hemoglobins decreased affinity for oxgen or an increase in the ease which which oxyhemoglobin dissociates and oxygen moves into the cells

right shift

28

hemoglobins increased affinity for oxygen which promotes association in the lungs and inhibits dissociation in the tissues

left shift

29

which shift is related to acute alkalosis (increased pH)

left shift
increased affinity

30

which shift is related to acute acidosis (decreased pH)

right shift
decrease affinity

31

what type of V/Q is there when there is impaired ventilation

low V/Q

32

what type of V/Q is there when there is blocked ventilation

shunt or very low V/Q

33

what type of V/Q is there when there is impaired perfusion

high V/Q

34

what causes vasoconstriction in the lungs

decreased PAO2
decreased PvO2
decreased pH
inflammatory mediators

35

vasoconstriction in the lungs can lead to what

pulmonary artery hypertension

36

is occlusion or partial occlusion of the pulmonary artery or its branches by an embolus

pulmonary embolism

37

risk factors for pulmonary embolism also know as virchows triad

venous stasis
venous (endothelial) injury
hypercoagulability

38

disorders associated with low V/Q

asthma
chronic bronchitis

39

disorders associated with very low (shunt) V/Q

ARDS
Pneumonia
atelectasis

40

disorders associated with high V/Q

pulmonary emboli

41

tendency for liquid molecules to adhere when exposed to air

surface tension

42

decreases surface tension

surfactant

43

when we have a problem with our heart function with low contractibility and high hydrostatic pressure in the pulmonary vessels
Pushes blood into interstitial space

cardiogenic pulmonary edema

44

destruction of the capillary membrane by the inflammatory response process creating separation of junction gaps in the endothelium
Increase capillary permeability, fluid leaks out to interstitial space

noncardiogenic pulmonary edema

45

ABGs of pulmonary edema

Hypoxemia
hypercapina
respiratory then mixed acidosis

46

collapse of lung tissue

atelectasis

47

types of atelectasis

compression
absorption
obstruction
impaired surfactant

48

complications of ARDS

atelectasis
non cardiogenic pulmonary edema

49

is caused by the external pressure exerted on lung tissue, such as occurs with tumors, or by fluid or air in the pleural space

compression atelectasis

50

clinical manifestations of atelectasis

dyspnea
cough
fever
leukocytosis

51

ABG of atelectasis

hypoxemia

52

guardian cell of lower respiratory tract; toll-like receptors recognize pathogens and activate innate and adaptive immune response

alveolar macrophages

53

is an infection of the lower respiratory tract influenced by a causative organism

pneumonia

54

what kind of cough is associated with bacterial pneumonia

productive

55

what kind of cough is associated with viral pneumonia

non productive

56

fluid in pleural space
Sources can be blood vessels, lymphatics, or draining abscess

pleural effusion

57

disorders that cause fluid to diffuse out of the capillaries with increased hydrostatic pressure

cardio pulmonary edema
Congestive heart failure

58

disorders that cause fluid to diffuse out of the capillaries with decreased onto tic pressure

non-cardiac pulmonary edema
ARDS

59

pleural effusion with the presence of lymph and emulsified fats

chylothorax

60

pleural effusion with the presence of pus

empyema

61

pleural effusion with the presence of blood

hemothorax

62

pleural effusion with the presence of water

hydrothorax

63

air in the pleural space where it is not suppose to be

pneumothorax

64

Rx for pneumothorax

chest tube

65

ABG of tension pneumothorax

Hypoxemia
Respiratory followed by mixed acidosis

66

is ac chronic inflammatory disorder if the bronchial mucosa that causes bronchial hyper responsiveness, constriction of the airways , and variable airflow obstruction that is reversible

asthma

67

early asthmatic response is caused by

mast cell activation
release of histamine and interlukins
immediate bronchoconstriction

68

late asthmatic response is caused by

leukotrienes and eosinophils

69

is hyper secretion of mucus and chronic productive cough

chronic bronchitis

70

is abnormal permanent enlargement of gas-exchange airways accompanied by destruction of alveolar walls without obvious fibrosis

emphysema

71

blue bloater

chronic bronchitis

72

pink puffer

emphysema

73

is secondary to pulmonary artery hypertension and consists of right ventricular enlargement

cor pulmonale