Test 3 Neuro part 1 Flashcards Preview

Patho > Test 3 Neuro part 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test 3 Neuro part 1 Deck (70)
1

what makes up the diencephalon

Hypothalamus
Pineal gland
Thalamus

2

is mediated by the reticular activating system, which regulates aspects of attention and information processing and maintains consciousness

Arousal

3

encompasses all cognitive function and is mediated by attentional systems, memory systems, language systems, and executive systems

Awareness

4

Structural alterations in arousal locations

Supratentorial
Infratentorial
Subdural
Extracerebral
intracerebral

5

Metabolic alteration in arousal are caused by

energy substrates
neuronal excitability

6

breathing pattern that is describes as hyperventilation which leads to apnea
Responds only to PaCO2

posthyperventilation apnea PHVA

7

breathing pattern that is described as crescendo/hyperpnea followed decrescendo/apnea

cheyne-stokes

8

breathing patterns that indicate damage in the cerebral cortex not brain stem

PHVA
Cheyne-stokes

9

breathing pattern that is described as hyperpnea

central neurogenic hyperventilation

10

breathing pattern that is described as prolonged inspiratory "cramp"

apneusis

11

breathing pattern that is described as irregular pauses between breaths

cluster breathing

12

breathing pattern that is described as completely irregular

ataxic breathing

13

breathing pattern that is described as deep, slow breaths/gasps

agonal gasping

14

what type of breathing is seen when mid brain is effected

central neurogenic hyperventilation

15

what type of breathing is seen when the lower pons and medulla are effected

cluster breathing
Ataxic breathing

16

what type of breathing is seen when the brain stem is effected

agonal gasping

17

pupil reaction to metabolic imbalance or deep bilateral hemisphere lesion such as hydrocephalus or thalamic hemorrhage

small
reactive
and regular

18

pupil reaction to diencephalic dysfunction

small
reactive

19

pupil reaction to dysfunction of third cranial nerve

Sluggish
Dilated
Fixed

20

pupil reaction to midbrain dysfunction

mid position
fixed

21

pupil reaction to pontine dysfunction

pinpoint

22

pupil reaction to dysfunction of tectum(roof) of the midbrain

large
Fixed
Hippus

23

eyes turn together to side opposite from turn of head

normal oculocephalic (dolls eyes) test

24

eye turn in a disconjugate movement as head is moved

abnormal oculocephalic test

25

eyes do not turn as head position changes

absent oculocephalic test

26

What is disrupted during the oculovestibular (caloric test)

endolymphatic flow

27

decorticate posture is demonstrated when what part of the brain is damaged

the cortex

28

decerebrate posture is demonstrated when what part of the brain is damaged

midbrain and upper pons

29

sudden, transient alteration of brain function caused by abrupt explosive, disorderly discharge of cerebral neurons

seizures

30

abnormal nerve connections
neurotransmitter imbalance
recurrent

epilepsy

31

what part of the brain is damaged when their is UE extension and LE flexion

pons

32

what part of the brain is damaged when the body is flaccid

lower pons
upper medula

33

attention, thought, and action deficit
RAS disruption

acute confusion

34

clinical manifestations of acute confusion

Confusion
restlessness
focus problems
delusions
hallucinations
perseveration

35

Acute brain disfunction
Develops over 2-3 days
can be caused from ICU, post-op, or drug withdrawal
Abrupt onset

delirium

36

Progressive failure of cerebral functions not caused by impaired LOC

Dementia

37

Causes of dementia

Inflammation or biochemical alterations that lead to neurodgeneration
Cerebral atrophy
Multifocal infarcts
trauma

38

what classification of dementia is vascular, metabolic, and neurodegenerative dementia associated with

Etiology

39

what classification of dementia is Alzheimer's and pick disease associated with

cortical

40

what classification of dementia is Parkinson's and huntington disease associated with

subcortical

41

what classification of dementia is infectious and creutzfedt-jakob disease associated with

cortical and subcortical

42

type of dysphasia where patient cant find words, writing impaired
Frontal lobe(broca) and MCA are involved

expressive

43

type of dysphasia where patient uses inappropriate words, comprehension and writing is impaired
Temporal lobe(wernicke) and left MCA are involved

Receptive

44

type of dysphasia where patient produces little speech, comprehension and writing is impaired
Frontotemporal lobe and left MCA and left ICA are involved

global

45

type of dysphasia where patient knows what they wan tho say but can't find words
Temporal lobe and degenerative disorders are involved

Anomic

46

type of agnosia where there is an inability to recognize objects by touch
Parietal lobe

tactile

47

type of agnosia where there is topographic and geographic disorientation
Parietal lobe

spatial

48

type of agnosia where there is an inability to write
Parietal lobe

agraphia

49

type of agnosia where there is an inability to recognize objects or pictures
Tempero-occipital

object

50

type of agnosia where there is an inability to recognize faces
tempero-occuoital

prosopagnosia

51

type of agnosia where there is an ignorance/denial of disease
right parietal lobe

anosognosia

52

is the leading cause of dementia and one of the most common causes of severe cognitive dysfunction in older adults

Alzheimer disease

53

caused by mass, edema, excess CSF, hemorrhage

increased ICP

54

increased ICP stage where there is vasoconstriction and external compression on veins
Compensation by increased reabsorption which leads to external compression of intracranial veins

stage 1

55

increased ICP stage where there is continued expansion of intracranial contents
Mild manifestations: confusion, drowsiness, increased BP, slight pupillary and respiratory changes
Not able to compensate

stage 2

56

increased ICP stage where there is brain hypoxia and hypercapnia
Auto regulation fails
See most of the manifestations: decreased LOC, dilated and fixed pupils, wide pulse pressure, bradycardia,

stage 3

57

increased ICP stage where the brain herniates and blood flow to the brain stops

stage 4

58

change in intracranial blood vessel diameter to maintain constant blood flow

autoregulation

59

Two types of supratentorial herniation

Transtentorial
Uncal

60

Uncus or hippocampal gyrus shifts from middle fossa through tenurial notch into posterior fossa
Compresses CN III which impairs parasympathetic function
Decreased LOC, ipsilateral then contralateral pupillary function and dilation, Cheyne-Stokes the CNH, decorticate and then decerebrate

Uncal herniation

61

Downward shift of diencephalon
Rapid decrease of LOC, Cheyne-Stokes the apnea, small then fixed and dilated pupils, decorticate then decerebrate

Transtentorial herniation

62

shift of cerebella tonsils
Arched, stiff neck, parathesias, decreased LOC, respiratory arrest, HR and BP changes

infratentorial herniation

63

increased fluid in the brian tissue

cerebral edema

64

effects of cerebral edema

Distorts blood vessels
Displaces brain tissue which leads to herniation
Focal neuro deficits, decreased LOC and increased ICP

65

edema caused by increased capillary permeability which impaired the BBB and leads to increase ICP and ischemia

vasogenic edema

66

edema caused by toxins that causes the active transport system to fail and leads to cell (parenchymal) swell

cytotoxic edema

67

edema caused when CSF moves from ventricle to tissue

interstitial edema

68

Examples of lower motor neuron and upper motor neuron syndromes

amytrophies
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ALS

69

examples of pyramidal and extrapyramidal pathology

Parkinson's disease

70

example soy spinal cord injury

trauma
spinal shock
neurogenic shock
autonomic shock