Test 1: Introduction Flashcards Preview

Psych 101 > Test 1: Introduction > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test 1: Introduction Deck (56):
0

Psychology

Scientific study of mind and behavior

1

Mind

Private inner experience

2

Behavior

Observable actions of human beings and nonhuman animals

3

What does an fMRI do?

Allows scientists to scan a brain and see which parts are active when a person does something.

4

How does the mind usually allow us to function effectively in the world?

The function of the mind is to help us do what we have to do in order to prosper, such as acquiring food, shelter, and mates.

5

What are emotions function?

Emotions function as signals that tell us when we are putting ourselves in harm's way.

6

Nativism

Certain kinds of knowledge are innate or inborn

7

Who argued in favor of Nativism?

Plato

8

Philosophical empiricism

We are a tabula rasa and that all knowledge is acquired through experience.

9

Who argued for philosophical empiricism?

Aristotle

10

René Descartes

Body and Mind are fundamentally different things. Mind influences body through pineal gland.

11

Thomas Hobbes

The mind is what the brain does.

12

Franz Joseph Gall

Thought brains and mind were linked but by size rather than by glands. Came up with phrenology.

13

Phrenology

Specific mental abilities and characteristics, ranging from memory to the capacity for happiness, are localized in specific regions of the brain.

14

Paul Broca

Crucial insight that damage to a specific part of the brain impaired a specific mental function, demonstrating that the mind and the brain are closely linked.

15

Physiology

Study of biological processes, especially in the human body

16

Stimulus

Sensory input from the environment

17

Reaction time

The amount of time taken to respond to a specific stimulus

18

Hermann Von Helmholtz

Studied nerve impulses and reaction times, showed mental processes did not occur simultaneously.

19

Wilhelm Wundt

Opened the first lab ever to be exclusively devoted to psychological studies. Believed psychology should focus on analyzing consciousness. Also adapted structuralism.

20

Consciousness

A person's subjective experience of the world and the mind.

21

Structuralism

The analysis of the basic elements that constitute the mind

22

Introspection

The subjective observation of one's own experience

23

William James

"Father of psychology"- believed that trying to isolate and analyze a particular moment of consciousness distorted the essential nature of consciousness. Said consciousness was more like a flowing stream than a bundle of separate elements. Functionalist.

24

Functionalism

The study of the purpose mental processes serve in enabling people to adapt to their environment.

25

Natural selection

The features of an organism that help it survive and reproduce are more likely than other features to be passed on to the subsequent generations.

26

Jean-Martin Charcot

Interviewed hysteria patients using hypnosis

27

Hysteria

A temporary loss of cognitive or motor functions, usually as a result of emotionally upsetting experiences.

28

Sigmund Freud

Defined the unconsciousness and developed the psychoanalytic theory and psychoanalysis

29

Unconscious

The part of the mind that operates outside of conscious awareness but influences conscious thoughts, feelings, and actions.

30

Psychoanalytic theory

An approach that emphasizes the importance of unconscious mental processes in shaping feelings, thoughts, and behaviors

31

Psychoanalysis

Bringing unconscious material into conscious awareness.

32

Humanistic psychology

an approach to understanding human nature that emphasizes the positive potential of human beings

33

Challenges for Psychoanalysis?

-Sexual spin on psychology
-Pessimistic view
-Difficult to study
-Freud did not do well with those who questioned his approach

34

Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers

Associated with humanistic psychology

35

Humanistic psychology

an approach to understanding human nature that emphasizes the positive potential of human beings

36

John Watson, B.F. Skinner, and Ivan Pavlov

associated with behaviorism

37

Behaviorism

the scientific study of objectively observable behavior

38

Response

an action or physiological change elicited by a stimulus

39

Skinner

-animals learn by interacting with their environment- not passive like Pavlov’s dogs
-“Skinner box”

40

reinforcement

the consequences of behavior determine whether it will be more or less likely to occur again.

41

Illusions

errors of perception memory, or judgment in which subjective experience differs from objective reality

42

Gestalt psychology

a psychological approach that emphasizes that we often perceive the whole rather than the sum of the parts.

43

Sir Frederic Bartlett

Our memory is influenced by our mind (our knowledge, hopes, aspirations, and desires) rather than a photographic representation of actual events.

44

Cognitive psychology

the scientific study of mental processes, including perception, thought, memory, and reasoning

45

Karl Lashley

-Removed parts of rat brains
-Observed deficits
-Behavioral Neuroscience

46

Cognitive Neuroscience

Links between cognitive processes and brain activity

47

John Garcia

associated with evolutionary psych

48

Evolutionary psychology

explains mind and behavior in terms of the adaptive value of abilities that are preserved over time by natural selection

49

Norman Triplett

associated with social psych

50

Social psychology

the study of the causes and consequences of interpersonal behavior

51

Culture

the values, traditions, and beliefs that are shared by a particular group of people

52

cultural psychology

the study of how cultures reflect and shape the psychological processes of their members.

53

Margaret Mead

associated with cultural psych

54

American Psychological Association (APA)

Formed in 1892

55

Who makes up most of the psych field?

Clinical psychologists