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Flashcards in Test 5 Exam Deck (47):
1

Psychologists

A professional who has completed advanced degrees in psychology

2

PsyD

Doctor of psychology, lack of emphasis on research characteristics, focuses on clinical practice

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PhD

Doctor of philosophy, focus on both clinical practice & research

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Freudian psychoanalysis

Focused on the WHY
view that emphasized the unconscious mind & its ability to affect people's behavior

5

Free association

Encouraging a patient to say whatever comes to mind without censoring their words, paying close attention to words the unconscious brings out

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Resistance

A patient shying away from a certain topic that the therapist brings up
A patients reluctance to accept a therapists interpretation as true meaning that the interpretation is true!

7

Person-centered therapy

Main humanistic theory
Developed by Carl Rogers
Therapist shows no judgement &I plays a passive role when talking to patient

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Systematic desensitization

Relaxing & slowly introducing the feared item

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Flooding

The feared item is presented by itself until it no longer produced the conditioned response of fear

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Aversion therapy

Pairing something unpleasant with a specific unwanted behavior

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Behavioral activation therapy

Used to treat depression
Context/environment is the reason for depression
Therefore it targets avoidance behavior, gets people to recognize the things that make them motivated & the things that don't.

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Cognitive therapy focused on

Based on the notion that the way we think is essential to health
Situations do not cause abnormal behavior, our thoughts about those situations do
Always focused on changing behaviors to be rational, logical ways of thinking instead

13

Rebt

Rational emotive behavioral therapy
Coined by Albert Ellis
Somewhat confrontational
Therapist is very critical of patients thinking
Focused on cognitive restructuring but deemphasized supportive role of therapist

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Cognitive-behavioral therapy CBT

Improves many psychological disorders, including depression & insomnia

15

Electroconvulsive therapy

Biological treatment in which seizures are induced in an anesthetized patient
Primarily used in the treatment of mood disorders that have not responded to other treatments
Last resort

16

Frontal lobotomy

Terrible psychosurgery that is no longer used.
Chopped up frontal lobe of brain
1930-1960

17

Barbiturates

Not used often today, overused in the 60's, very dangerous
Addictive properties & frequently used in suicides

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Benzodiazepines

Discovered after WWII
Used to treat panic disorder & generalized anxiety
Also becoming overused today

19

Selective serotonin Reuptake inhibitors (Ssri's)

Treat depression & other mood disorders
They block the Reuptake of serotonin, thus increasing the amount of serotonin in the synapse at a given time
Allows for increased binding to receptors

20

Lithium Bicarbonate

Main drug used for bipolar disorder.
Still poorly understood what lithium does for bipolar disorder
It has an antioxidant effect which promotes growth of new neurons & prevents further loss of neurons

21

Phenothiazines (Thorazine)

One medication to treat schizophrenia
Discovered by accident, but allowed many people to return to their communities instead of living in institutions
Reduces positive symptoms, but doesn't reduce negative symptoms such as: tardive dyskinesia difficulty/slow moving

22

Clozapine

Other medication for schizophrenia
Treats negative symptoms better
Less tardive dyskinesia

23

Health psychology

A sub field of psychology focusing on the relationship between mind & body as it related to illness & health

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Stress

An unpleasant emotional state that results from the perception of danger

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Stressor

A stimulus that serves as a source of stress

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Biopsychosocial model

Psychological & social factors influence the development of illness along with biology
Psychology -- cognition a, emotions, motivations
Biology -- genetics, infectious diseases, physiology
Social -- social support, education, family

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What does the scale created by Holmes & Rahe measure?

A list of 43 stressful life events that can contribute to illness
Predicts vulnerability to physical illness & psychological disorders because of different stressors

28

Why is a resilient personality helpful?

It contributes to a person's ability to cope with and adapt to stress
A lack of resiliency will lead someone to feeling overwhelmed, helpless, & victimized

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1. Alarm stage

Sympathetic arousal & mental clarity, all resources mobilized for fight or flight

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2. Resistance stage

Coping w| ongoing stress, adapt as well as possible

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3. Exhaustion stage

Physical & psychosocial resources are depleted
Often leads to burnout

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Hypothalamic- Pituitary- Adrenal Axis (HPA)

Circuit that responds to perceived stress by initiating the release of cortisol
Hypothalamus tells pituitary gland to release cortisol from adrenal glands
Boosts energy, starts slower but last longer

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Sympathetic adrenal - medullary system (SAm)

Circuit that responds to perceived stress by initiating the release of adrenaline (epinephrine/norepinephrine)
Adrenaline gets released from adrenal glands in lower back
This travels to brain stimulating fight-or-flight response in nervous system
Short lived, fast, then burns out

34

What is the risk of chronic stress?

Produces long-term exposure to cortisol (the stress hormone)
Contribute to reduced hippocampal volume, therefore producing memory problems
Also can produce abnormal sleep patterns, depression & neuronal damage & death

35

What is so negative about Type a personalities?

Super competitive & hostile, always under a lot of stress
Makes someone vulnerable to heart issues!
Stress prevents blood vessels from expanding when they need to
Leads to increased heart rate & blood pressure

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Problem- focused coping

Response designed to address specific problems by finding solutions
Altering the environment causing the stress

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Problem - focused coping (positive version)

You fail a test so you decide to start going to tutoring every week

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Problem - focused coping (negative version)

You fail a test so you decide to stop going to class

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Emotion - focused coping

Response designed to target negative emotions arising from situation

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Emotion- focused coping (positive version)

You fail a test & feel upset so you go running to blow off some steam

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Emotion - focused coping (negative version)

You fail a test & feel upset, so you drink an entire bottle of wine to numb the pain

42

Locus of control

The extent to which individuals believe they can or can not control events affecting them

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Locus of control (external)

Attribute everything to outside world
Someone has no control over events in their life

44

Locus of control (internal)

Attribute everything to themselves
Someone has total control over everything that happens to them

45

Goal of positive psychology

Emphasizes normal behavior & human strengths
Created by Martin seligman
3 stages : present life, good life, meaningful life

46

Flow

State characterized by complete absorption in a current activity, such as work, problem solving, or creativity

47

Psychiatrist

A medical doctor who specializes in psychiatry & can use medical procedures to treat psychological disorders, MD
Can prescribe medicine