Test 4: Social Psychology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test 4: Social Psychology Deck (52):
1

Agression

behavior whose purpose is to harm another.

2

Premeditated Agression

is when people consciously decide to use aggression to achieve their goals. (violent or not (computer hackers))

3

Impulsive Agression

-is when people aggress spontaneously without premeditation.
-More about unpleasant internal states than scarce resources
-Temperature example

4

Frustration-Agression Principle

people aggress when their goals are thwarted.

5

____differences exist in types of aggressive behavior.

Gender

6

Cooperation

-behavior by two or more individuals that leads to mutual benefit.
-the prisoner’s dilemma game.

7

Altruism

behavior that benefits another without benefiting oneself.

8

Reciprocal Altruism

behavior that benefits another with the expectation that those benefits will be returned in the future

9

Genuine Altruism

heroism

10

Group

a collection of two or more people who believe they have something in common.

11

Prejudice

a positive or negative evaluation of another person based on his or her group membership.

12

Discrimination

positive or negative behavior toward another person based on his or her group membership.

13

Deidividuation

immersion in group causes people to become less aware of their individual values. Become somewhat anonymous

14

Diffusion of Responsibility

feel diminished responsibility for actions because others are acting the same way OR because you assume others will act.

15

Social Loafing

is the phenomenon of people exerting less effort to achieve a goal when they work in a group than when they work alone.

16

Bystander Effect

is a social psychological phenomenon that refers to cases in which individuals do not offer any means of help to a victim when other people are present.

17

Conformity

tendency to conform to group

18

Group Think

extreme form of conformity that occurs in close groups. Members think alike and suppress all doubts and dissent.

19

More ___ for women to make “reproductive mistake”

costly; because:
-Fewer eggs, 9 months pregnant, risk life to have child

20

Situational Factors: Mere-exposure Effect

the tendency for liking to increase with the frequency of exposure.

21

Physical Factors: Appearance

Attractive people have more friends, more dates, more fun, earn 10% money, better social skills
Mothers of attractive babies are more affectionate and playful
Universal standards of beauty: related to good genes and good parental tendencies

22

Psychological Factors

personality, beliefs, attitudes, values, abilities
We tend to marry people with similar levels of education, religious backgrounds, ethnicities, SES, personalities. WHY?
Easier to get along with someone who sees the world the way you do
When you share beliefs, you feel more confident these beliefs are correct

23

Human infants are born ___ they are fully developed and thus need committed caretakers, unlike many other animals.

before
-Nurturing often requires more than one parent can provide.

24

Passionate Love

an experience involving feelings of euphoria, intimacy, and intense sexual attraction. Diminishes in a few months.

25

Companionate Love

an experience involving affection, trust, and concern for a partner’s well-being. No necessary decline.

26

Research shows that faces are considered especially beautiful when their features approximate the ____ of the human population.

average

27

Social Influence

the control of one person’s behavior by another.

28

Hedonic Principle

creating situations in which others can achieve more pleasure by doing what we want them to do.
Parents, teachers, government, businesses offer rewards and threaten punishment

29

Observational Learning

learning that occurs when one person observes another person being rewarded or punished.
-Examples: public hangings, Bobo the Clown, mothers who smile/frown at snakes

30

Approval Motive

having others like us, accept us, and approve of us.

31

Social Norms

a customary standard for behavior that is shared by members of a culture. Conventions of everyday life that make interactions with others predictable and orderly.
-Examples: laws, conventions of behavior (elevator, greetings)

32

Social Roles

-positions that are regulated by norms about how people in those positions should behave
-Gender roles, occupational roles, family roles

33

Norm of Reciprocity

-help those who help you
-Examples: “I’ll pay next time.”; Higher tips when server gives candy with bill.

34

Door-in-the-face technique

example of Norm of Reciprocity
-asking a lot, then making a concession which the other person feels obligated to make a concession also

35

Foot-in-the-door technique

not example of Norm of Reciprocity but another form of persuasion.
-The petition/yard sign example

36

Cognitive Dissonance

Unpleasant feelings when recognize inconsistencies in our actions, attitudes, and beliefs.

37

Obedience

the tendency to do what authorities tell us to do simply because they tell us to do it.
-Milgram’s Obedience Studies.
-Stanford Prison Studies.

38

Milgram's Obedience Studies

Thing with teacher shocking the learner because the whitecoat told them to

39

Obedience is a function of situation NOT...

personality

40

Stanford Prison Studies

college students were randomly assigned to the roles of prisoners and guards

41

Why do People Obey?

Compliance is generally good for society

Most people obey because:
Obvious consequences if disobey
-Suspended from school, jail, fines

Gain something if obey
-Liked by others, promoted, learn from authorities knowledge

Deeply convinced of authorities legitimacy
-Want respect from authority and value relationship, trust

42

Allocate Responsibility to Authority

It is his fault/problem. I’m just following orders
Abu Ghraib prison

43

Routinizing the task

When you define actions in terms of routine duties, roles, and tasks, it starts to feel normal. Just another job to be done. Busy work distracts from ethical questions
Nazis and Khmer Rouge kept meticulous records of every victim

44

Deeply convinced of authorities legitimacy

Good manners are important; Don’t want to rock the boat, doubt the expert, be rude, be wrong, be shunned by authority figure you respect

45

Become entrapped

Entrapment: individuals escalate their commitment to a course of action to justify their investment in it
Train interrogators to use torture

46

Attitude

an enduring positive or negative evaluation of a person, group, idea, object, event, or activity.

47

Persuasion

occurs when person’s attitudes and beliefs are influenced by a communication from another person.

48

Heuristic Persuasion

appeal to habit or emotion to persuade someone to believe something.
Heuristics: shortcuts, rule of thumb

49

Validity Effect

tendency to believe that something is true simply because it has been repeated many times.

50

Scare Tactics

-least effective way to get people to change their minds
-Scared people become defensive & hopeless

51

Coercive Persuasion

designed to suppress individual’s ability to reason, think critically, and make choices in his/her own best interest.
Examples: “cults”

52

Key Processes of Coercive Persuasion

Person is put under physical or emotional stress.

Person’s problems are reduced to one simple explanation which is repeatedly emphasized.

Leader offers unconditional love/acceptance/attention.

New identity is created.

Person is subjected to entrapment.

Person’s access to information is controlled.