Flashcards in Test 4: Social Psychology Deck (52):
behavior whose purpose is to harm another.
is when people consciously decide to use aggression to achieve their goals. (violent or not (computer hackers))
-is when people aggress spontaneously without premeditation.
-More about unpleasant internal states than scarce resources
people aggress when their goals are thwarted.
____differences exist in types of aggressive behavior.
-behavior by two or more individuals that leads to mutual benefit.
-the prisoner’s dilemma game.
behavior that benefits another without benefiting oneself.
behavior that benefits another with the expectation that those benefits will be returned in the future
a collection of two or more people who believe they have something in common.
a positive or negative evaluation of another person based on his or her group membership.
positive or negative behavior toward another person based on his or her group membership.
immersion in group causes people to become less aware of their individual values. Become somewhat anonymous
Diffusion of Responsibility
feel diminished responsibility for actions because others are acting the same way OR because you assume others will act.
is the phenomenon of people exerting less effort to achieve a goal when they work in a group than when they work alone.
is a social psychological phenomenon that refers to cases in which individuals do not offer any means of help to a victim when other people are present.
tendency to conform to group
extreme form of conformity that occurs in close groups. Members think alike and suppress all doubts and dissent.
More ___ for women to make “reproductive mistake”
-Fewer eggs, 9 months pregnant, risk life to have child
Situational Factors: Mere-exposure Effect
the tendency for liking to increase with the frequency of exposure.
Physical Factors: Appearance
Attractive people have more friends, more dates, more fun, earn 10% money, better social skills
Mothers of attractive babies are more affectionate and playful
Universal standards of beauty: related to good genes and good parental tendencies
personality, beliefs, attitudes, values, abilities
We tend to marry people with similar levels of education, religious backgrounds, ethnicities, SES, personalities. WHY?
Easier to get along with someone who sees the world the way you do
When you share beliefs, you feel more confident these beliefs are correct
Human infants are born ___ they are fully developed and thus need committed caretakers, unlike many other animals.
-Nurturing often requires more than one parent can provide.
an experience involving feelings of euphoria, intimacy, and intense sexual attraction. Diminishes in a few months.
an experience involving affection, trust, and concern for a partner’s well-being. No necessary decline.
Research shows that faces are considered especially beautiful when their features approximate the ____ of the human population.
the control of one person’s behavior by another.
creating situations in which others can achieve more pleasure by doing what we want them to do.
Parents, teachers, government, businesses offer rewards and threaten punishment
learning that occurs when one person observes another person being rewarded or punished.
-Examples: public hangings, Bobo the Clown, mothers who smile/frown at snakes
having others like us, accept us, and approve of us.
a customary standard for behavior that is shared by members of a culture. Conventions of everyday life that make interactions with others predictable and orderly.
-Examples: laws, conventions of behavior (elevator, greetings)
-positions that are regulated by norms about how people in those positions should behave
-Gender roles, occupational roles, family roles
Norm of Reciprocity
-help those who help you
-Examples: “I’ll pay next time.”; Higher tips when server gives candy with bill.
example of Norm of Reciprocity
-asking a lot, then making a concession which the other person feels obligated to make a concession also
not example of Norm of Reciprocity but another form of persuasion.
-The petition/yard sign example
Unpleasant feelings when recognize inconsistencies in our actions, attitudes, and beliefs.
the tendency to do what authorities tell us to do simply because they tell us to do it.
-Milgram’s Obedience Studies.
-Stanford Prison Studies.
Milgram's Obedience Studies
Thing with teacher shocking the learner because the whitecoat told them to
Obedience is a function of situation NOT...
Stanford Prison Studies
college students were randomly assigned to the roles of prisoners and guards
Why do People Obey?
Compliance is generally good for society
Most people obey because:
Obvious consequences if disobey
-Suspended from school, jail, fines
Gain something if obey
-Liked by others, promoted, learn from authorities knowledge
Deeply convinced of authorities legitimacy
-Want respect from authority and value relationship, trust
Allocate Responsibility to Authority
It is his fault/problem. I’m just following orders
Abu Ghraib prison
Routinizing the task
When you define actions in terms of routine duties, roles, and tasks, it starts to feel normal. Just another job to be done. Busy work distracts from ethical questions
Nazis and Khmer Rouge kept meticulous records of every victim
Deeply convinced of authorities legitimacy
Good manners are important; Don’t want to rock the boat, doubt the expert, be rude, be wrong, be shunned by authority figure you respect
Entrapment: individuals escalate their commitment to a course of action to justify their investment in it
Train interrogators to use torture
an enduring positive or negative evaluation of a person, group, idea, object, event, or activity.
occurs when person’s attitudes and beliefs are influenced by a communication from another person.
appeal to habit or emotion to persuade someone to believe something.
Heuristics: shortcuts, rule of thumb
tendency to believe that something is true simply because it has been repeated many times.
-least effective way to get people to change their minds
-Scared people become defensive & hopeless
designed to suppress individual’s ability to reason, think critically, and make choices in his/her own best interest.