Flashcards in Test 2: Emotion and Motivation Deck (61):
a state of arousal involving facial and bodily changes, brain activation, cognitive appraisals, subjective feelings, and tendencies towards action, all shaped by cultural rules.
considered universal and biologically based
What are the primary emotions?
Fear, anger, sadness, joy, surprise, disgust, (contempt)
develop with cognitive maturity and vary across individuals and cultures
What's an example of a secondary emotion?
One may feel ashamed for feeling sad or angry about something
facial muscles send messages to the brain about the basic emotion being expressed.
Example of facial feedback
When told to smile/hold pencil in teeth, positive feelings increase
Darwin's Theory on Facial Expression
facial expressions evolved to communicate our emotional states to others and to provoke response from them.
Babies’ expressions have survival value
-Parents can tell what infants need
-All adults feel connected when infant smiles at them
-Babies will mimic parents facial expressions/moods
facial expressions of emotion can actually generate emotions in others
See picture of specific facial expressions and your own facial muscles mimic the ones you are observing, activating similar emotional states for you....is an example of what?
Fast emotional response
Stimulus -> Thalamus -> Amygdala -> response
Slow emotional response
Stimulus -> Thalamus -> Cortex -> Amygdala -> response
Slow pathway of fear
Sensory info goes from thalamus, to cortex, to amygdala. Cortex conducts full scale investigation of info and its importance. Cortex sends message to amygdala to either maintain or decrease fear response
Fast pathway of fear
Amygdala gets info from thalamus directly and makes a fast and simple decision.
Primary emotions have unique...
hormone levels and cortex activation patterns
Lie detector test
-Based on assumption that a lie involves emotion and increased autonomic arousal
-Detects increased HR, respiration rate, electrical conductance of skin
Lie detectors are still generally invalid because....
-No pattern of physiological arousal is specific to lying (could be anger, nervousness, etc.)
-People can “beat the test” by thinking about something exciting or tensing muscles during neutral questions
Greek Philosophers said:
People don’t become angry, sad, or anxious because of actual events, but because of their explanations of those events.
stimuli trigger activity in the autonomic nervous system (ANS), which in turn produces an emotional experience in the brain.
a stimulus simultaneously triggers activity in the ANS and emotional experience in the brain.
Two-factor theory (Schachter-Singer)
emotions are inferences about the causes of undifferentiated physiological arousal.
-Two factors: physiological response + cognitive interpretation
Our feelings depend on our interpretation/perception of a situation
Do poorly on an exam: 1. feel guilty b/c you didn’t study 2. feel angry b/c it was a difficult test 3. feel happy b/c want to fail out of school to join the circus
The paradox of the athlete who is “shamed to death” for coming in second place (but not 3rd)
One’s interpretation of a situation.
-May be immediate perception OR general philosophy of life.
You can change your feelings about something by ______ it.
The basis for cognitive therapy
the use of cognitive and behavioral strategies to influence one’s emotional experience. Usually an attempt to turn negative emotions to positive ones.
Behavioral emotional regulation
avoid people, do distracting activities, take medications
Cognitive emotional regulation
try not to think about it, reappraisals (change one’s emotional experience by changing the meaning of the emotion-eliciting stimuli)
Research suggests primary emotions are relatively _______ but likelihood of secondary emotions differ across cultures
People are better at identifying emotions expressed by others in their OWN....
ethnic, national, or regional group
social and cultural rules that regulate when, how, and where a person may express (or must suppress) emotions.
expression of an emotion that the person does not really feel, often because of a role requirement.
-You appear happy at a wedding when you are really feeling jealous
Some nonverbal cues are relatively universal
Depressed: head down
Proud: head up
the notion that all people are motivated to experience pleasure and avoid pain (Aristotle).
a process within a person or animal that causes movement either toward a goal or away from an unpleasant situation.
-Food, love, sex, achievement
the desire to do something for its own sake and the pleasure it brings
-Play piano for the joy music gives you
-More likely to work harder and more creatively
the desire to pursue a goal for external rewards
-Play piano for fame and money
tells the brain to switch hunger “on”.
tells the brain to switch hunger “off”.
increases eating (hunger center).
stops eating (satiety center).
Weight set point
Biologically set weight that you remain at when not trying to gain or loose weight
-Fluctuates by 10% up or down
Basal metabolic rate
rate the body burns calories for energy
Twin studies suggest _____ is highly heritable
characterized by binge eating followed by purging.
-Cycle of trying to reduce negative emotions
characterized by an intense fear of being fat and severe restriction of food intake.
-Most recover but may have severe health implications
Depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, perfectionism, distorted body image, drug use, perceived pressure to lose weight are associated with....
a turmoil of emotions and sexual passion
based on affection and trust
you love the ones nearest to you
you love the ones most like you
-Looks, attitudes, beliefs, values, personality, interests
Two factors that affect love
Proximity and Similarity
rarely jealous or worried about being abandoned (64%)
distrust and avoid intimate attachments
agitated about relationships, want to be close but worry partner will leave them, clingy, more unrequited love
Attachment Theory of Love
Emotional dynamics of adult romantic relationship are governed by same systems that govern the infant-caregiver relationship
3 component of love
Passion, Intimacy, Commitment
Passion (more biological) often subsides as ____ increases