Test 2: Emotion and Motivation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test 2: Emotion and Motivation Deck (61)
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1

Emotion

a state of arousal involving facial and bodily changes, brain activation, cognitive appraisals, subjective feelings, and tendencies towards action, all shaped by cultural rules.

2

Primary emotions

considered universal and biologically based

3

What are the primary emotions?

Fear, anger, sadness, joy, surprise, disgust, (contempt)

4

Secondary emotions

develop with cognitive maturity and vary across individuals and cultures

5

What's an example of a secondary emotion?

One may feel ashamed for feeling sad or angry about something

6

Facial Feedback

facial muscles send messages to the brain about the basic emotion being expressed.

7

Example of facial feedback

When told to smile/hold pencil in teeth, positive feelings increase

8

Darwin's Theory on Facial Expression

facial expressions evolved to communicate our emotional states to others and to provoke response from them.

9

Babies’ expressions have survival value

-Parents can tell what infants need
-All adults feel connected when infant smiles at them
-Babies will mimic parents facial expressions/moods

10

Mood contagion

facial expressions of emotion can actually generate emotions in others

11

See picture of specific facial expressions and your own facial muscles mimic the ones you are observing, activating similar emotional states for you....is an example of what?

Mood contagion

12

Fast emotional response

Stimulus -> Thalamus -> Amygdala -> response

13

Slow emotional response

Stimulus -> Thalamus -> Cortex -> Amygdala -> response

14

Slow pathway of fear

Sensory info goes from thalamus, to cortex, to amygdala. Cortex conducts full scale investigation of info and its importance. Cortex sends message to amygdala to either maintain or decrease fear response

15

Fast pathway of fear

Amygdala gets info from thalamus directly and makes a fast and simple decision.

16

Primary emotions have unique...

hormone levels and cortex activation patterns

17

Lie detector test

-Based on assumption that a lie involves emotion and increased autonomic arousal
-Detects increased HR, respiration rate, electrical conductance of skin

18

Lie detectors are still generally invalid because....

-No pattern of physiological arousal is specific to lying (could be anger, nervousness, etc.)
-People can “beat the test” by thinking about something exciting or tensing muscles during neutral questions

19

Greek Philosophers said:

People don’t become angry, sad, or anxious because of actual events, but because of their explanations of those events.

20

James-Lange Theory

stimuli trigger activity in the autonomic nervous system (ANS), which in turn produces an emotional experience in the brain.

21

Cannon-Bard Theory

a stimulus simultaneously triggers activity in the ANS and emotional experience in the brain.

22

Two-factor theory (Schachter-Singer)

emotions are inferences about the causes of undifferentiated physiological arousal.
-Two factors: physiological response + cognitive interpretation

23

Our feelings depend on our interpretation/perception of a situation

Do poorly on an exam: 1. feel guilty b/c you didn’t study 2. feel angry b/c it was a difficult test 3. feel happy b/c want to fail out of school to join the circus

24

William James:

The paradox of the athlete who is “shamed to death” for coming in second place (but not 3rd)

25

Cognitive appraisals

One’s interpretation of a situation.
-May be immediate perception OR general philosophy of life.

26

You can change your feelings about something by ______ it.

reappraising

27

The basis for cognitive therapy

reappraisal

28

Emotional Regulation

the use of cognitive and behavioral strategies to influence one’s emotional experience. Usually an attempt to turn negative emotions to positive ones.

29

Behavioral emotional regulation

avoid people, do distracting activities, take medications

30

Cognitive emotional regulation

try not to think about it, reappraisals (change one’s emotional experience by changing the meaning of the emotion-eliciting stimuli)