Test 2: Emotion and Motivation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test 2: Emotion and Motivation Deck (61):
1

Emotion

a state of arousal involving facial and bodily changes, brain activation, cognitive appraisals, subjective feelings, and tendencies towards action, all shaped by cultural rules.

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Primary emotions

considered universal and biologically based

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What are the primary emotions?

Fear, anger, sadness, joy, surprise, disgust, (contempt)

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Secondary emotions

develop with cognitive maturity and vary across individuals and cultures

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What's an example of a secondary emotion?

One may feel ashamed for feeling sad or angry about something

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Facial Feedback

facial muscles send messages to the brain about the basic emotion being expressed.

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Example of facial feedback

When told to smile/hold pencil in teeth, positive feelings increase

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Darwin's Theory on Facial Expression

facial expressions evolved to communicate our emotional states to others and to provoke response from them.

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Babies’ expressions have survival value

-Parents can tell what infants need
-All adults feel connected when infant smiles at them
-Babies will mimic parents facial expressions/moods

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Mood contagion

facial expressions of emotion can actually generate emotions in others

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See picture of specific facial expressions and your own facial muscles mimic the ones you are observing, activating similar emotional states for you....is an example of what?

Mood contagion

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Fast emotional response

Stimulus -> Thalamus -> Amygdala -> response

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Slow emotional response

Stimulus -> Thalamus -> Cortex -> Amygdala -> response

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Slow pathway of fear

Sensory info goes from thalamus, to cortex, to amygdala. Cortex conducts full scale investigation of info and its importance. Cortex sends message to amygdala to either maintain or decrease fear response

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Fast pathway of fear

Amygdala gets info from thalamus directly and makes a fast and simple decision.

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Primary emotions have unique...

hormone levels and cortex activation patterns

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Lie detector test

-Based on assumption that a lie involves emotion and increased autonomic arousal
-Detects increased HR, respiration rate, electrical conductance of skin

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Lie detectors are still generally invalid because....

-No pattern of physiological arousal is specific to lying (could be anger, nervousness, etc.)
-People can “beat the test” by thinking about something exciting or tensing muscles during neutral questions

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Greek Philosophers said:

People don’t become angry, sad, or anxious because of actual events, but because of their explanations of those events.

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James-Lange Theory

stimuli trigger activity in the autonomic nervous system (ANS), which in turn produces an emotional experience in the brain.

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Cannon-Bard Theory

a stimulus simultaneously triggers activity in the ANS and emotional experience in the brain.

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Two-factor theory (Schachter-Singer)

emotions are inferences about the causes of undifferentiated physiological arousal.
-Two factors: physiological response + cognitive interpretation

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Our feelings depend on our interpretation/perception of a situation

Do poorly on an exam: 1. feel guilty b/c you didn’t study 2. feel angry b/c it was a difficult test 3. feel happy b/c want to fail out of school to join the circus

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William James:

The paradox of the athlete who is “shamed to death” for coming in second place (but not 3rd)

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Cognitive appraisals

One’s interpretation of a situation.
-May be immediate perception OR general philosophy of life.

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You can change your feelings about something by ______ it.

reappraising

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The basis for cognitive therapy

reappraisal

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Emotional Regulation

the use of cognitive and behavioral strategies to influence one’s emotional experience. Usually an attempt to turn negative emotions to positive ones.

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Behavioral emotional regulation

avoid people, do distracting activities, take medications

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Cognitive emotional regulation

try not to think about it, reappraisals (change one’s emotional experience by changing the meaning of the emotion-eliciting stimuli)

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Research suggests primary emotions are relatively _______ but likelihood of secondary emotions differ across cultures

universal

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People are better at identifying emotions expressed by others in their OWN....

ethnic, national, or regional group

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Display rules

social and cultural rules that regulate when, how, and where a person may express (or must suppress) emotions.

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Emotion Work

expression of an emotion that the person does not really feel, often because of a role requirement.
-You appear happy at a wedding when you are really feeling jealous

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Some nonverbal cues are relatively universal

Depressed: head down
Proud: head up

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Hedonic principle

the notion that all people are motivated to experience pleasure and avoid pain (Aristotle).

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Motivation

a process within a person or animal that causes movement either toward a goal or away from an unpleasant situation.
-Food, love, sex, achievement

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Intrinsic Motivation

the desire to do something for its own sake and the pleasure it brings
-Play piano for the joy music gives you
-More likely to work harder and more creatively

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Extrinsic Motivation

the desire to pursue a goal for external rewards
-Play piano for fame and money

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Ghrelin

tells the brain to switch hunger “on”.

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Leptin

tells the brain to switch hunger “off”.

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Lateral Hypothalamus

increases eating (hunger center).

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Ventromedial hypothalamus

stops eating (satiety center).

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Weight set point

Biologically set weight that you remain at when not trying to gain or loose weight
-Fluctuates by 10% up or down

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Basal metabolic rate

rate the body burns calories for energy

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Twin studies suggest _____ is highly heritable

body weight

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Bulimia Nervosa

characterized by binge eating followed by purging.
-Cycle of trying to reduce negative emotions

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Anorexia Nervosa

characterized by an intense fear of being fat and severe restriction of food intake.
-Most recover but may have severe health implications

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Depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, perfectionism, distorted body image, drug use, perceived pressure to lose weight are associated with....

Eating Disorders

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Passionate Love

a turmoil of emotions and sexual passion

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Companionate Love

based on affection and trust

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Proximity

you love the ones nearest to you

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Similarity

you love the ones most like you
-Looks, attitudes, beliefs, values, personality, interests

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Two factors that affect love

Proximity and Similarity

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Secure love

rarely jealous or worried about being abandoned (64%)

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Avoidant love

distrust and avoid intimate attachments

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Anxious-Ambivalent love

agitated about relationships, want to be close but worry partner will leave them, clingy, more unrequited love

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Attachment Theory of Love

Emotional dynamics of adult romantic relationship are governed by same systems that govern the infant-caregiver relationship

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3 component of love

Passion, Intimacy, Commitment

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Passion (more biological) often subsides as ____ increases

intimacy

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Intamacy

based on deep knowledge of a person that accumulates over time