Test 3: Personality Flashcards Preview

Psych 101 > Test 3: Personality > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test 3: Personality Deck (43):
1

Personality

a distinctive pattern of behaving, mannerisms, thoughts, motives, and emotions that characterize an individual over time and across different situations.

2

Freud: The Psychodynamic Approach

personality is primarily formed by early childhood experiences, and shaped by unconscious processes.

3

Id

-present at birth, operates under “pleasure principle”=seek immediate gratification, our bodily needs, wants, desires, and impulses (especially sexual and aggressive drives)

4

Ego

referee between Id and Superego to meet demands of society, hold back impulses until appropriate, operates under “reality principle” = delay gratifying immediate needs to function in real world.

5

Superego

represents morality and parental authority, delivers feelings of pride, satisfaction OR guilt and shame

6

Defense Mechanisms

unconscious coping mechanisms (used by ego) that reduce anxiety generated by threats from unacceptable impulses.

7

Repression

a mental process that removes painful experiences and unacceptable impulses from the conscious mind.

8

Projection

involves attributing one's own threatening feelings, motives, or impulses or another person or group.
-people who think they're dishonest will think other people are dishonest also

9

Rationalization

involves supplying a reasonable-sounding explanation for unacceptable feelings and behavior to conceal (mostly from oneself) one's underlying motives or feelings.
-you dropped the class because the classroom was uncomfortable not because you failed a test

10

Displacement

involves shifting unacceptable wishes or drives to a neutral or less threatening alternative
-slamming a door

11

Sublimation

involves channeling unacceptable sexual or aggressive drives into socially acceptable and culturally enhancing activities
-channeling anger into football

12

Reaction Formation

involves unconsciously replacing threatening inner wishes and fantasies with an exaggerated version of their opposite.
-being excessively nice to someone you dislike

13

Regression

the ego deals with internal conflict and perceived threat by reverting to an immature behavior or earlier stage of development.
-adult cuddling with teddy bear when stressed

14

Denial

Denial is the refusal to accept reality or fact, acting as if a painful event, thought or feeling did not exist.
-Alcoholic saying he doesn't have a drinking problem

15

Identification

helps deal with feelings of threat and anxiety by enabling us unconsciously to take on the characteristics of another person who seems more powerful or better able to cope.
-A child whose parent severely punishes them may later be a bully

16

Psychosexual Stages

Distinct early life stages through which sexual energy takes on different forms as child matures. Each stage associated with conflict to be resolved, otherwise child is fixated. Which stage the child gets stuck in forms personality.

17

Oral stage

The first psychosexual stage, in which experience centers on the pleasures and frustrations associated with the mouth, sucking, and being fed.

18

Anal Stage

The second psychosexual stage, which is dominated by the pleasures and frustrations associated with the anus, retention and expulsion of feces and urine, and toilet training.

19

Phallic Stage

The third psychosexual stage, during which experience is dominated by the pleasure, conflict, and frustration associated with the phallic-genital region as well as coping with powerful incestuous feelings of love, hate, jealousy, and conflict.

20

Latency Stage

The fourth psychosexual stage, during which the primary focus is on the further development of intellectual, creative, interpersonal, and athletic skills.

21

Genital Stage

The final psychosexual stage, a time for the coming together of the mature adult personality with a capacity to love, work, and relate to others in a mutually satisfying and reciprocal manner.

22

Oedipus conflict

A developmental experience in which a child's conflicting feelings toward the opposite-sex parent are (usually) resolved by identifying with the same-sex parent

23

Fixation

a person’s pleasure-seeking drives become stuck or arrested at that psychosexual stage.

24

Myers-Briggs Type indicator

predict how people will do at work, get along with others, succeed as leaders, low reliability but still used often.
extroverted-introverted
sensing-intuitive
thinking-feeling
judging-perceiving

25

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI):

a well-researched clinical questionnaire used to assess personality and psychological problems. 567 questions
-Depression, anxiety, paranoia, sociable, impulsive, hypochondriasis, schizophrenia…etc.
-Validity scales: faking good, faking bad

26

Projective techniques

a standard series of ambiguous stimuli designed to elicit unique responses that reveal inner aspects of an individuals’ personality. (Psychodynamic)

27

Rorschach Inkblot Test

a projective personality test in which individual interpretations of the meaning of a set of unstructured inkblots are analyzed to identify a respondent's inner feelings and interpret his or her personality structure

28

Thematic Apperception Test

a projective personality test in which respondent's reveal underlying motives, concerns, and the way they see the social world through the stories they make up about ambiguous pictures of people

29

Trait

a relatively stable disposition to behave in a particular and consistent way.

30

The Big Five

traits of the five-factor model include:
extroversion – introversion
neuroticism – emotional stability
agreeableness – antagonism
conscientiousness -- impulsive
openness to experience – resistance to new experiences

31

Which type of twins have more similar personalities regardless of whether they were raised together or separately?

Identical Twins because they share most of their genes

32

Environmental impact on personality

People act differently in different situations
Different behaviors are rewarded, punished, ignored in different contexts
Experience matters

33

Peer influence on personality

Cornell Study of “secret lives”
Value placed on academic success of peer group shapes students’ academic success

34

Individualist Cultures

Self is regarded as autonomous, individual goals and wishes are prized above duty and relations with others
US, Western Europe

35

Collective Cultures

Self is regarded as embedded in relationships, harmony with one’s group is prized above individual goals and wishes.
Japan, China, Korea

36

Aggression is _____ bound

culturally

37

_____ kids are the least altruistic

American

38

Humanistic Psychologists

emphasize a positive, optimistic view of human nature that highlights people’s inherent goodness and their potential for personal growth and resilience.

39

Carl Rogers

-Unconditional positive regard
-Can correct someone’s behavior (discipline a child) without withdrawing love.

40

Abraham Maslow

-Hierarchy of Needs
-self-actualization

41

Self-actualizing tendency

The human motive to realize our inner potential

42

Existentialist Psychologists

emphasize the individual as a responsible agent who is free to create and live his or her life while negotiating the issue of meaning and the reality of death.

43

Existential approach

regards personality as governed by an individual’s ongoing choices and decisions in the context of the realities of life and death