Test 2: Reasoning and Intelligence Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test 2: Reasoning and Intelligence Deck (25):
1

Reasoning

drawing conclusions or inferences from observations, facts, and assumptions

2

Formal reasoning

Single correct answer
-algorithm

3

Informal reasoning

Often no clearly correct solution
-Heuristic
-dialectical reasoning

4

Heuristic

a rule of thumb that guides problem solving but does NOT guarantee optimal solution
-Doctor deciding on best treatment course

5

Dialectical Reasoning

a process in which opposing facts or ideas are weighed and compared to determine the best possible solution or resolve to differences
-list pros and cons of argument

6

Barriers to rational thinking

-Exaggerating the Improbable
-The Conjunction Fallacy
-Framing Effects
-Sunkcost Fallacy
-Hindsight Bias
-Confirmation Bias
-The need for Cognitive Consistency

7

Availability Hueristic

The tendency to judge the probability of a type of event by how easily it is to think of examples or instances
-scared of tornadoes, but not of heart disease, even though the latter is much more likely

8

Conjunction fallacy

The tendency for people to think two events are more likely to occur together than either individual event
-Better chances of one condition being met than two conditions being met.

9

Framing Effects

The tendency for people to give different answers to the same problem depending on how the problem is phrased or framed (assigning different value to something)
-Chance of survival vs chance of death

10

Sunkcost Fallacy

The tendency of people to make decisions about current situation based on what they have previously invested in the situation.
-keeping that sweater you've never worn because you spent money on it

11

Hindsight Bias

The tendency to overestimate one’s ability to have predicted an event once the outcome is known
-I knew it all along.

12

Problem with hindsight bias?

you are less likely to learn how to make accurate decision in future

13

Confirmation Bias

The tendency to pay attention to only the information that confirms one’s beliefs.
-politicians bragging only about success record
-Jury members ignoring evidence that doesn't fit their idea of what happened

14

Cognitive Dissonance

The state of tension that occurs when a person holds two cognitions that are psychologically inconsistent or when a person’s belief is incongruent with his behavior.

15

You're more likely to reduce dissonance when...

1) you need to justify a choice or decision you freely made.
2) you need to justify a behavior that conflicts with our view of ourselves.
3) you need to justify the effort you put into a decision or choice

16

Intelligence

a mental ability that enables people to direct their thinking, adapt to their circumstances, and learn from their experiences

17

Alfred Binet

developed first objective test aiming to give unbiased assessment of child’s ability
-Determined “Mental Age”

18

Lewis Terman

modified Binet’s test for American children
-Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (1916)

19

David Wechsler

developed test for adults in the 1930s, then kids
-Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
-Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)

20

Intelligence is a _______ that enables people to perform a wide variety of consequential behaviors

hypothetical property (g)

21

Consequential Behaviors

job performance, academic success, leadership roles.

22

Genetic's role in intelligence

Genetics: identical twins raised apart are more similar that fraternal twins raised together

23

Environment's role in intelligence

Environment: unrelated siblings raised together are more similar than related siblings raised apart

24

____ predicts IQ better than ethnicity

Socio-economic statis (SES)

25

Differences between groups is ____ compared the the differences within groups.

small