Flashcards in Test 2: Learning Deck (54):
an experience that results in a relatively permanent change in the state of the learner.
Behaviorism measures only...
observable, quantifiable behavior (no reference to our mind).
when a neutral stimulus evokes a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally evokes a response.
Classical conditioning consists of what four components?
unconditioned stimulus (US), unconditioned response (UR), conditioned stimulus (CS), conditioned response (CR)
A reaction that resembles an UR, but is produced by a CS
Something that reliably produces a naturally occurring reaction in an organism
A stimulus that is initially neutral and produces no reliable response in an organism
A reflexive reaction that is reliably elicited by an US
What is the CS and CR for drug users?
CS= place, people
CR= neurotransmitters that protect the brain from drugs
the weakening and eventual disappearance of a learned response that occurs when the CS is no longer paired with the US.
-Never present food after the bell
Higher order conditioning
a neutral stimulus becomes a CS when paired with an already established CS
-Light -> bell -> food -> salivation.
Stimulus generalization (CC)
when a stimulus that resembles the CS also elicits the CR
-Salivate to one bell, will salivate to any bell sound
Stimulus Discrimination (CC)
the tendency to respond differently to > 2 stimuli
-Middle C on piano evokes CR, but not middle C on guitar
the phase of classical conditioning when the CS and the US are presented together
the tendency of a learned behavior to recover from extinction after a rest period
(1878-1958) Entire array of rich human emotions and behavior can be accounted for by conditioning principles
Learning to like
CC plays role in our emotional response to object, people, places, events, symbols
Learning to fear
learn to fear almost anything if paired with something associated with pain, embarrassment
The Case of Little Albert
In Watson’s experiment, Little Albert (9months) associated a frightening loud noise (US) with a white rat (CS) to elicit fear (CR).
Classical conditioning only occurs when...
an animal has learned to set up an expectation
Conditioning is easier when the CS is...
an unfamiliar event than if a familiar one (no pre-existing expectations)
Biological readiness/preparedness to associate sickness with taste more than sights or sounds
a type of learning in which the consequences of an organism’s behavior determine whether it will be repeated in the future.
Law of effect
behaviors that are followed by a "satisfying state of affairs" tend to be repeated and those that produce an "unpleasant state of affairs" are less likely to be repeated
neither increases nor decreases the probability that something will occur
strengthens a behavior or makes it more likely to occur.
weakens behavior or makes it less likely to occur.
inherently reinforcing, satisfy physiological needs.
Food, water, stroking of skin
pain, extreme heat/cold
learned; associated with primary reinforcers through CC.
Money, good grades
fines, bad grades
circumstances when external rewards can undermine the intrinsic satisfaction of performing a behavior
Increases likelihood of behavior, stimulus presented
-Getting a pizza party for earning a good grade on an exam.
Increases likelihood of behavior, stimulus removed
-Don’t have to make your bed in the morning if you get an A.
Decreases likelihood of behavior, stimulus presented
-Having to do more weekly chores for getting caught stealing money.
Decreases likelihood of behavior, stimulus removed
-Having your car privileges taken away for disobeying a curfew
Stimulus generalization (operant)
a behavior that has been reinforced/punished in presence of one stimulus, will/will not occur in the presence of other similar stimuli
-Pigeon reinforced for pecking circles, will also peck at ovals
Stimulus discrimination (operant)
behavior will/will not occur in presence of stimuli that differ from initial reinforced/punished stimuli
-Pigeon only reinforced for circle, will not peck at square
is one that is associated with reinforcement.
-If the light is on, the pigeon will be reinforced when he pecks on the circle
Schedule of reinforcement
when/how an organism is reinforced for a particular behavior.
ratio/number of responses
Fixed interval schedule (FI)
reinforcements are presented at fixed time periods, provided that the appropriate response is made.
Variable interval schedule (VI)
reinforcements are based on an average time that has expired since the last reinforcement.
Fixed ratio schedule (FR)
reinforcements are presented after a specific number of responses have been made.
Variable ratio schedule (VR)
reinforcements are based on a particular average number of responses.
only some of the responses made are followed by reinforcement.
all responses are reinforced
For every 10 minutes you sit still at the doctor’s office, you get a lollipop.
A car dealership gives away keys to a brand new car every hour (at any time in the hour).
After every 10 pizzas you buy, you get one free.
A casino jackpot machine hits on average every 100th player.
learning takes place by watching the actions of others.