Flashcards in Test 2: Learning Deck (54)
an experience that results in a relatively permanent change in the state of the learner.
Behaviorism measures only...
observable, quantifiable behavior (no reference to our mind).
when a neutral stimulus evokes a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally evokes a response.
Classical conditioning consists of what four components?
unconditioned stimulus (US), unconditioned response (UR), conditioned stimulus (CS), conditioned response (CR)
A reaction that resembles an UR, but is produced by a CS
Something that reliably produces a naturally occurring reaction in an organism
A stimulus that is initially neutral and produces no reliable response in an organism
A reflexive reaction that is reliably elicited by an US
What is the CS and CR for drug users?
CS= place, people
CR= neurotransmitters that protect the brain from drugs
the weakening and eventual disappearance of a learned response that occurs when the CS is no longer paired with the US.
-Never present food after the bell
Higher order conditioning
a neutral stimulus becomes a CS when paired with an already established CS
-Light -> bell -> food -> salivation.
Stimulus generalization (CC)
when a stimulus that resembles the CS also elicits the CR
-Salivate to one bell, will salivate to any bell sound
Stimulus Discrimination (CC)
the tendency to respond differently to > 2 stimuli
-Middle C on piano evokes CR, but not middle C on guitar
the phase of classical conditioning when the CS and the US are presented together
the tendency of a learned behavior to recover from extinction after a rest period
(1878-1958) Entire array of rich human emotions and behavior can be accounted for by conditioning principles
Learning to like
CC plays role in our emotional response to object, people, places, events, symbols
Learning to fear
learn to fear almost anything if paired with something associated with pain, embarrassment
The Case of Little Albert
In Watson’s experiment, Little Albert (9months) associated a frightening loud noise (US) with a white rat (CS) to elicit fear (CR).
Classical conditioning only occurs when...
an animal has learned to set up an expectation
Conditioning is easier when the CS is...
an unfamiliar event than if a familiar one (no pre-existing expectations)
Biological readiness/preparedness to associate sickness with taste more than sights or sounds
a type of learning in which the consequences of an organism’s behavior determine whether it will be repeated in the future.
Law of effect
behaviors that are followed by a "satisfying state of affairs" tend to be repeated and those that produce an "unpleasant state of affairs" are less likely to be repeated
neither increases nor decreases the probability that something will occur
strengthens a behavior or makes it more likely to occur.
weakens behavior or makes it less likely to occur.
inherently reinforcing, satisfy physiological needs.
Food, water, stroking of skin
pain, extreme heat/cold