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Flashcards in Test 2: Learning Deck (54)
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1

learning

an experience that results in a relatively permanent change in the state of the learner.

2

Behaviorism measures only...

observable, quantifiable behavior (no reference to our mind).

3

Classical Conditioning

when a neutral stimulus evokes a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally evokes a response.

4

Classical conditioning consists of what four components?

unconditioned stimulus (US), unconditioned response (UR), conditioned stimulus (CS), conditioned response (CR)

5

Conditioned response

A reaction that resembles an UR, but is produced by a CS

6

Unconditioned stimulus

Something that reliably produces a naturally occurring reaction in an organism

7

Conditioned stimulus

A stimulus that is initially neutral and produces no reliable response in an organism

8

Unconditioned response

A reflexive reaction that is reliably elicited by an US

9

What is the CS and CR for drug users?

CS= place, people
CR= neurotransmitters that protect the brain from drugs

10

Extinction

the weakening and eventual disappearance of a learned response that occurs when the CS is no longer paired with the US.
-Never present food after the bell

11

Higher order conditioning

a neutral stimulus becomes a CS when paired with an already established CS
-Light -> bell -> food -> salivation.

12

Stimulus generalization (CC)

when a stimulus that resembles the CS also elicits the CR
-Salivate to one bell, will salivate to any bell sound

13

Stimulus Discrimination (CC)

the tendency to respond differently to > 2 stimuli
-Middle C on piano evokes CR, but not middle C on guitar

14

Acquisition

the phase of classical conditioning when the CS and the US are presented together

15

Spontaneous recovery

the tendency of a learned behavior to recover from extinction after a rest period

16

Watson

(1878-1958) Entire array of rich human emotions and behavior can be accounted for by conditioning principles

17

Learning to like

CC plays role in our emotional response to object, people, places, events, symbols

18

Learning to fear

learn to fear almost anything if paired with something associated with pain, embarrassment
-PHOBIAS

19

The Case of Little Albert

In Watson’s experiment, Little Albert (9months) associated a frightening loud noise (US) with a white rat (CS) to elicit fear (CR).

20

Classical conditioning only occurs when...

an animal has learned to set up an expectation

21

Conditioning is easier when the CS is...

an unfamiliar event than if a familiar one (no pre-existing expectations)

22

Food aversions

Biological readiness/preparedness to associate sickness with taste more than sights or sounds

23

Operant conditioning

a type of learning in which the consequences of an organism’s behavior determine whether it will be repeated in the future.

24

Law of effect

behaviors that are followed by a "satisfying state of affairs" tend to be repeated and those that produce an "unpleasant state of affairs" are less likely to be repeated

25

Neutral consequence

neither increases nor decreases the probability that something will occur

26

Reinforcer

strengthens a behavior or makes it more likely to occur.
positive reinforcement
negative reinforcement.

27

Punisher

weakens behavior or makes it less likely to occur.
positive punishment
negative punishment.

28

Primary reinforcer

inherently reinforcing, satisfy physiological needs.
Food, water, stroking of skin

29

Primary punisher

pain, extreme heat/cold

30

Secondary reinforcer

learned; associated with primary reinforcers through CC.
Money, good grades