Test 2: Learning Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test 2: Learning Deck (54):
1

learning

an experience that results in a relatively permanent change in the state of the learner.

2

Behaviorism measures only...

observable, quantifiable behavior (no reference to our mind).

3

Classical Conditioning

when a neutral stimulus evokes a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally evokes a response.

4

Classical conditioning consists of what four components?

unconditioned stimulus (US), unconditioned response (UR), conditioned stimulus (CS), conditioned response (CR)

5

Conditioned response

A reaction that resembles an UR, but is produced by a CS

6

Unconditioned stimulus

Something that reliably produces a naturally occurring reaction in an organism

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Conditioned stimulus

A stimulus that is initially neutral and produces no reliable response in an organism

8

Unconditioned response

A reflexive reaction that is reliably elicited by an US

9

What is the CS and CR for drug users?

CS= place, people
CR= neurotransmitters that protect the brain from drugs

10

Extinction

the weakening and eventual disappearance of a learned response that occurs when the CS is no longer paired with the US.
-Never present food after the bell

11

Higher order conditioning

a neutral stimulus becomes a CS when paired with an already established CS
-Light -> bell -> food -> salivation.

12

Stimulus generalization (CC)

when a stimulus that resembles the CS also elicits the CR
-Salivate to one bell, will salivate to any bell sound

13

Stimulus Discrimination (CC)

the tendency to respond differently to > 2 stimuli
-Middle C on piano evokes CR, but not middle C on guitar

14

Acquisition

the phase of classical conditioning when the CS and the US are presented together

15

Spontaneous recovery

the tendency of a learned behavior to recover from extinction after a rest period

16

Watson

(1878-1958) Entire array of rich human emotions and behavior can be accounted for by conditioning principles

17

Learning to like

CC plays role in our emotional response to object, people, places, events, symbols

18

Learning to fear

learn to fear almost anything if paired with something associated with pain, embarrassment
-PHOBIAS

19

The Case of Little Albert

In Watson’s experiment, Little Albert (9months) associated a frightening loud noise (US) with a white rat (CS) to elicit fear (CR).

20

Classical conditioning only occurs when...

an animal has learned to set up an expectation

21

Conditioning is easier when the CS is...

an unfamiliar event than if a familiar one (no pre-existing expectations)

22

Food aversions

Biological readiness/preparedness to associate sickness with taste more than sights or sounds

23

Operant conditioning

a type of learning in which the consequences of an organism’s behavior determine whether it will be repeated in the future.

24

Law of effect

behaviors that are followed by a "satisfying state of affairs" tend to be repeated and those that produce an "unpleasant state of affairs" are less likely to be repeated

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Neutral consequence

neither increases nor decreases the probability that something will occur

26

Reinforcer

strengthens a behavior or makes it more likely to occur.
positive reinforcement
negative reinforcement.

27

Punisher

weakens behavior or makes it less likely to occur.
positive punishment
negative punishment.

28

Primary reinforcer

inherently reinforcing, satisfy physiological needs.
Food, water, stroking of skin

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Primary punisher

pain, extreme heat/cold

30

Secondary reinforcer

learned; associated with primary reinforcers through CC.
Money, good grades

31

Secondary punishers

fines, bad grades

32

Overjustification effect

circumstances when external rewards can undermine the intrinsic satisfaction of performing a behavior

33

Positive reinforcement

Increases likelihood of behavior, stimulus presented
-Getting a pizza party for earning a good grade on an exam.

34

Negative reinforcement

Increases likelihood of behavior, stimulus removed
-Don’t have to make your bed in the morning if you get an A.

35

Positive punishment

Decreases likelihood of behavior, stimulus presented
-Having to do more weekly chores for getting caught stealing money.

36

Negative punishment

Decreases likelihood of behavior, stimulus removed
-Having your car privileges taken away for disobeying a curfew

37

Stimulus generalization (operant)

a behavior that has been reinforced/punished in presence of one stimulus, will/will not occur in the presence of other similar stimuli
-Pigeon reinforced for pecking circles, will also peck at ovals

38

Stimulus discrimination (operant)

behavior will/will not occur in presence of stimuli that differ from initial reinforced/punished stimuli
-Pigeon only reinforced for circle, will not peck at square

39

Discriminative stimulus

is one that is associated with reinforcement.
-If the light is on, the pigeon will be reinforced when he pecks on the circle

40

Schedule of reinforcement

when/how an organism is reinforced for a particular behavior.

41

Interval schedule

time intervals

42

Ratio schedule

ratio/number of responses

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Fixed interval schedule (FI)

reinforcements are presented at fixed time periods, provided that the appropriate response is made.

44

Variable interval schedule (VI)

reinforcements are based on an average time that has expired since the last reinforcement.

45

Fixed ratio schedule (FR)

reinforcements are presented after a specific number of responses have been made.

46

Variable ratio schedule (VR)

reinforcements are based on a particular average number of responses.

47

Intermittent reinforcement

only some of the responses made are followed by reinforcement.

48

Continuous reinforcement:

all responses are reinforced

49

FI

For every 10 minutes you sit still at the doctor’s office, you get a lollipop.

50

VI

A car dealership gives away keys to a brand new car every hour (at any time in the hour).

51

FR

After every 10 pizzas you buy, you get one free.

52

VR

A casino jackpot machine hits on average every 100th player.

53

Observational Learning

learning takes place by watching the actions of others.

54

Model

someone whose behavior might serve as a guide for others.