Flashcards in Test 1: Neuroscience and Behavior Deck (56):
cells in the nervous system that communicate with one another to perform information-processing tasks
coordinates information-processing tasks and keeps the cell alive
receives information from other neurons and relays it to the cell body
transmits information to other neurons, muscles, or glands
insulating layer of fatty material
Nodes of Ranvier
increase efficiency of signal transmission
the junction or region between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites or cell body of another
receive information from the external world travel through spinal cord convey to brain
spinal cord to the muscles induce movement.
neurons that connect sensory neurons, motor neurons, or other interneurons.
Two stages of electrical signaling?
conduction and transmission
When the neuron is at rest, positively charged potassium ions (K+) flow out
an electric signal that is conducted along an axon to a synapse
the time following an action potential during which a new action potential cannot be initiated
knoblike structures that branch out from an axon
chemicals that transmit information across the synapse
parts of the cell membrane that receive the neurotransmitter and initiate a new electric signal
voluntary motor control, memory, learning
-regulates motor behavior, pleasure, and emotional arousal.
-excitatory NT, learning, memory
-High Glutamate = seizures
-Low GABA = seizures
-influences mood and arousal.
-regulates sleep, dreaming, mood, aggression, appetite, sexual behavior.
-chemicals that act within pain and pleasure pathways and emotion centers of the brain.
-an interacting network of neurons that conveys electrochemical information throughout the body.
-Nerves: bundles of axons and glial cells that support neurons.
-CNS + PNS
Central Nervous System (CNS)
brain and spinal cord.
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
-connects the central nervous system to the body’s organs and muscles.
-Somatic + Autonomic
-a set of nerves that conveys information into and out of the CNS. Communicates with sense organs (eyes) and voluntary muscles.
-Sensory NS + Motor NS
Autonomic NS (ANS)
-a set of nerves that carries involuntary and automatic commands that control blood vessels, body organs, and glands.
-Sympathetic NS + Parasympathetic NS
a set of nerves transmitting sensory input from body to brain
a set of nerves for motor output from brain to body
a set of nerves that prepares the body for action in threatening situations
a set of nerves that helps the body return to a normal resting state.
CNS made of?
the brain and the spinal cord, which communicate and collaborate on a variety of complex tasks.
simple pathways in the nervous system that rapidly generate muscle contractions.
Hind brain (brainstem)
an area of the brain that coordinates information coming into and out of the spinal cord, and controls the basic functions of life.
coordinates heart rate, circulation, and respiration
regulates sleep, wakefulness, and arousal level.
fine motor skills, coordination, balance
relays information from the cerebellum to the rest of the brain. Sleep and dreams
-small, midsection of the brain that is important for orientation and movement (vision, hearing, voluntary motor control)
critical for complex cognitive, emotional, sensory, and motor function.
the outermost layer of the brain, visible to the naked eye and divided into 2 hemispheres.
areas of the forebrain housed under the cerebral cortex near the very center of the brain.
relays and filters information from the senses and transmits the information to the cerebral cortex.
regulates body temperature, hunger, thirst, and sexual behavior.
the “master-gland”, releases hormones that direct the functions of many other glands in the body.
critical for creating new memories
emotional processes, particularly the formation of emotional memories.
processes visual information.
-processes information about touch.
responsible for hearing and language.
specialized areas for movement, abstract thinking, planning, memory, and judgment. Motor Cortex
a thick band of nerve fibers that connects the right and left hemispheres and supports communication of information across the hemispheres.
Left hemisphere is responsible for