Test 1: Neuroscience and Behavior Flashcards Preview

Psych 101 > Test 1: Neuroscience and Behavior > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test 1: Neuroscience and Behavior Deck (56):
1

Neuron

cells in the nervous system that communicate with one another to perform information-processing tasks

2

Cell body

coordinates information-processing tasks and keeps the cell alive

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Dendrites

receives information from other neurons and relays it to the cell body

4

Axon

transmits information to other neurons, muscles, or glands

5

Myelin sheath

insulating layer of fatty material

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Nodes of Ranvier

increase efficiency of signal transmission

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Synapse

the junction or region between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites or cell body of another

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Sensory neurons

TO BRAIN
receive information from the external world travel through spinal cord convey to brain

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Motor nuerons

TO BODY
spinal cord to the muscles induce movement.

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Internuerons

neurons that connect sensory neurons, motor neurons, or other interneurons.

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Two stages of electrical signaling?

conduction and transmission

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Resting potential

When the neuron is at rest, positively charged potassium ions (K+) flow out
-cell -

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Action potential

an electric signal that is conducted along an axon to a synapse
-cell +

14

Refractory period

the time following an action potential during which a new action potential cannot be initiated

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terminal buttons

knoblike structures that branch out from an axon

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nuerotransmitters

chemicals that transmit information across the synapse

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receptors

parts of the cell membrane that receive the neurotransmitter and initiate a new electric signal

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Acetylcholine (Ach)

voluntary motor control, memory, learning
Alzheimer’s Disease

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Dopamine (DA)

-regulates motor behavior, pleasure, and emotional arousal.
-Parkinson’s Disease
-Schizophrenia
-Drug Addiction

20

Glutamate

-excitatory NT, learning, memory
-High Glutamate = seizures

21

GABA

-inhibitory NT
-Low GABA = seizures

22

Norepinephrine (NE)

-influences mood and arousal.
-Depression

23

Serotonin (5-HT)

-regulates sleep, dreaming, mood, aggression, appetite, sexual behavior.
-Depression/Anxiety/OCD

24

Endorphins

-chemicals that act within pain and pleasure pathways and emotion centers of the brain.
-Runner’s High

25

Nervous System

-an interacting network of neurons that conveys electrochemical information throughout the body.
-Nerves: bundles of axons and glial cells that support neurons.
-CNS + PNS

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Central Nervous System (CNS)

brain and spinal cord.

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Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

-connects the central nervous system to the body’s organs and muscles.
-Somatic + Autonomic

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Somatic NS

-a set of nerves that conveys information into and out of the CNS. Communicates with sense organs (eyes) and voluntary muscles.
-Sensory NS + Motor NS

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Autonomic NS (ANS)

-a set of nerves that carries involuntary and automatic commands that control blood vessels, body organs, and glands.
-Sympathetic NS + Parasympathetic NS

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Sensory NS

a set of nerves transmitting sensory input from body to brain

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Motor NS

a set of nerves for motor output from brain to body

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Sympathetic NS

a set of nerves that prepares the body for action in threatening situations

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Parasympathetic NS

a set of nerves that helps the body return to a normal resting state.

34

CNS made of?

the brain and the spinal cord, which communicate and collaborate on a variety of complex tasks.

35

Spinal reflexes

simple pathways in the nervous system that rapidly generate muscle contractions.

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Hind brain (brainstem)

an area of the brain that coordinates information coming into and out of the spinal cord, and controls the basic functions of life.

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Medulla

coordinates heart rate, circulation, and respiration

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Reticular formation

regulates sleep, wakefulness, and arousal level.

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cerebellum

fine motor skills, coordination, balance

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pons

relays information from the cerebellum to the rest of the brain. Sleep and dreams

41

Midbrain

-small, midsection of the brain that is important for orientation and movement (vision, hearing, voluntary motor control)
-tectum
-tegmentum

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Forebrain

critical for complex cognitive, emotional, sensory, and motor function.

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Cerebral Cortex

the outermost layer of the brain, visible to the naked eye and divided into 2 hemispheres.

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Subcortical Structures

areas of the forebrain housed under the cerebral cortex near the very center of the brain.

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Thalamus

relays and filters information from the senses and transmits the information to the cerebral cortex.

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Hypothalamus

regulates body temperature, hunger, thirst, and sexual behavior.

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Pituitary gland

the “master-gland”, releases hormones that direct the functions of many other glands in the body.

48

Hippocampus

critical for creating new memories

49

Amygdala

emotional processes, particularly the formation of emotional memories.

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Occipital Lobe

processes visual information.

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Parietal Lobe

-processes information about touch.
-Somatosensory Cortex

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Temporal Lobe

responsible for hearing and language.

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frontal lobe

specialized areas for movement, abstract thinking, planning, memory, and judgment. Motor Cortex

54

Corpus Callosum

a thick band of nerve fibers that connects the right and left hemispheres and supports communication of information across the hemispheres.

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Left hemisphere is responsible for

language

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Right hemisphere is responsible for

visual-spatial