Test 3: Development Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test 3: Development Deck (63):
1

Developmental Psychology

the study of continuity and change across the life span.

2

Prenatal Stage

from conception to birth.

3

Germinal Stage

from conception through the first 2 weeks.

4

Zygote

a single cell that contains chromosomes from both a sperm and an egg

5

Embryonic Stage

-The period of prenatal development that lasts from the 2nd week until about the 8th week.
-Embryo

6

Fetal Stage

-the period of prenatal development that lasts from the 9th week until birth.
-Fetus

7

The ____ links the mother’s bloodstream to the developing embryo or fetus.

Placenta

8

Teratogens

agents that damage the process of development, such as drugs and viruses.

9

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

a developmental disorder that stems from heavy alcohol use by the mother during pregnancy.

10

Infancy

the stage of development that begins at birth and lasts between 18 and 24 mos.

11

Motor development

the emergence of the ability to execute physical action.

12

Reflexes

specific patterns of motor response that are triggered by specific patterns of sensory stimulation.
-Rooting Reflex
-Sucking Reflex
-Babinski Reflex
-Moro Reflex
-Stepping Reflex
-Grasping Reflex

13

Cognitive Development

the emergence of the ability to understand the world.

14

Piaget's Stages of Development

sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational

15

Sensorimotor Stage (birth-infancy)

Schemas
Assimilation
Accommodation
Object permanence

16

Preoperational Stage (2-6)

Egocentrism vs Perspective

17

Concrete Operational Stage (6-11)

Conservation: the notion that the quantitative properties of an object are invariant despite changes in the object's appearance

18

Schemas

theories about or models of the way the world works

19

Assimilation

infants apply their schemas in novel situations

20

Accommodation

infants revise their schemas in light of new information

21

Object permanence

the idea that objects continue to exist even when they are not visible

22

Formal Operational Stage (11-adulthood)

Logic, reasoning, abstract thinking, hypotheticals

23

Zone of Proximal Development

0

24

Social Referencing

the ability to use another person's reactions as information

25

Joint Attention

at 9 – 15 mos. of age, babies can direct their attention to a point in space to which another’s eyes are directed.

26

Private Speech

-talking to self, running scenarios
example- being a firefighter superhero rescuing the princess

27

Cog abilities develop in continuous, overlapping ___ (not discrete stages)

waves

28

Preschoolers are not as ___ as Piaget thought

egocentric

29

Children understand ___ than Piaget thought

more

30

Cog dev is greatly affected by ___.

culture

31

Piaget ___ the cog skills of some adults

overestimated

32

Harlow’s Baby Rhesus Monkeys:

preferred soft cloth monkey over wire monkey with food

33

Attachment

the emotional bond that forms between newborns and their primary caregivers.

34

Ainsworth’s Strange Situation Test

Baby left in room with stranger, how the react when mom comes back shows type of attachment

35

Secure Attachement

If the caregiver leaves, then returns, infants who had been distressed by her absence go to her and are calmed by her proximity, while those who had not been distressed acknowledge her return with a glance or greeting

36

Avoidant Attachment

These infants are generally not distressed when their caregiver leaves the room, and they generally do not acknowledge her when she returns

37

Ambivalent Attachment

These infants are almost always distressed when their caregiver leaves the room, but when she returns they rebuff her attempt to calm them, arching their backs and squirming to get away

38

Disorganized Attachment

These infants show no consistent pattern of responses when their caregiver leaves or returns

39

Internal working model of attachment

a set of expectations about how the primary caregiver will respond when the child feels insecure.

40

Temperments

characteristic patterns of emotional reactivity. (35% are a mixture of the three)

41

Easy/Flexible

40%- do not cry or fight very often, laid back

42

Difficult/Fiesty

10%- Cry and fight, temper tantrums

43

Slow to warm/cautious

15%- need more time to warm up to new situations

44

Realism to Relativism

Moral rules are real truths about the world
vs
Moral rules are inventions and groups of people can adopt, change or abandon them

45

Prescriptions to Principles

Moral rules are guidelines for specific actions in specific situations
vs
moral rules are expressions of more general principles (fairness/equality)

46

Outcomes to Intentions

Unintentional acts that cause much harm are worse than intentional acts that cause mild harm
vs
Morality of action is critically dependent on person’s state of mind and intentions

47

Heinz Dilemma

Woman dying of cancer and druggist has drug, Heinz breaks into store to get it

48

Preconventional Stage (children)

the morality of an action is primarily determined by its consequences for the actor.

49

Conventional Stage (entering teens)

the morality of an action is primarily determined by the extent to which it conforms to social rules.

50

Postconventional Stage (adulthood)

the morality of an action is determined by a set of general principles that reflect core values.

51

Research suggests the capacity for moral feelings is ___. Moral sense and desire to get along well with others can be nurtured or diminished by child’s ___.

inborn; experiences

52

Power Assertion

Used to enforce punishment and authority to correct child’s misbehavior

53

Induction

Parents appeal to child’s good nature, empathy, love for parent, and sense of responsibility AND offer explanation of rules

54

Adolescence

begins with the onset of sexual maturity (about 11-14 yrs.) and lasts until the beginning of adulthood (about 18-21 yrs.).

55

Puberty

the bodily changes associated with sexual maturity. Recently, onset has been earlier.

56

Primary Sex Characteristics

bodily structures that are directly involved in reproduction.

57

Secondary Sex Characteristics

bodily structures that change dramatically with sexual maturity but that are not directly involved in reproduction.

58

Time between childhood and adulthood has increased as onset of ___ becomes earlier

puberty

59

Adolescents are adults who have been __ a place in adult society so feel compelled to demonstrate independence

denied

60

Boys externalize problems as ___

agression

61

Girls internalize problems by ...

withdrawing or developing EDs

62

65% of American women report having had ___ by age 18, 90% by age 21

sex

63

25% of teens have had > __ partners by senior year of HS

4