Flashcards in Test 3: Development Deck (63):
the study of continuity and change across the life span.
from conception to birth.
from conception through the first 2 weeks.
a single cell that contains chromosomes from both a sperm and an egg
-The period of prenatal development that lasts from the 2nd week until about the 8th week.
-the period of prenatal development that lasts from the 9th week until birth.
The ____ links the mother’s bloodstream to the developing embryo or fetus.
agents that damage the process of development, such as drugs and viruses.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
a developmental disorder that stems from heavy alcohol use by the mother during pregnancy.
the stage of development that begins at birth and lasts between 18 and 24 mos.
the emergence of the ability to execute physical action.
specific patterns of motor response that are triggered by specific patterns of sensory stimulation.
the emergence of the ability to understand the world.
Piaget's Stages of Development
sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational
Sensorimotor Stage (birth-infancy)
Preoperational Stage (2-6)
Egocentrism vs Perspective
Concrete Operational Stage (6-11)
Conservation: the notion that the quantitative properties of an object are invariant despite changes in the object's appearance
theories about or models of the way the world works
infants apply their schemas in novel situations
infants revise their schemas in light of new information
the idea that objects continue to exist even when they are not visible
Formal Operational Stage (11-adulthood)
Logic, reasoning, abstract thinking, hypotheticals
Zone of Proximal Development
the ability to use another person's reactions as information
at 9 – 15 mos. of age, babies can direct their attention to a point in space to which another’s eyes are directed.
-talking to self, running scenarios
example- being a firefighter superhero rescuing the princess
Cog abilities develop in continuous, overlapping ___ (not discrete stages)
Preschoolers are not as ___ as Piaget thought
Children understand ___ than Piaget thought
Cog dev is greatly affected by ___.
Piaget ___ the cog skills of some adults
Harlow’s Baby Rhesus Monkeys:
preferred soft cloth monkey over wire monkey with food
the emotional bond that forms between newborns and their primary caregivers.
Ainsworth’s Strange Situation Test
Baby left in room with stranger, how the react when mom comes back shows type of attachment
If the caregiver leaves, then returns, infants who had been distressed by her absence go to her and are calmed by her proximity, while those who had not been distressed acknowledge her return with a glance or greeting
These infants are generally not distressed when their caregiver leaves the room, and they generally do not acknowledge her when she returns
These infants are almost always distressed when their caregiver leaves the room, but when she returns they rebuff her attempt to calm them, arching their backs and squirming to get away
These infants show no consistent pattern of responses when their caregiver leaves or returns
Internal working model of attachment
a set of expectations about how the primary caregiver will respond when the child feels insecure.
characteristic patterns of emotional reactivity. (35% are a mixture of the three)
40%- do not cry or fight very often, laid back
10%- Cry and fight, temper tantrums
Slow to warm/cautious
15%- need more time to warm up to new situations
Realism to Relativism
Moral rules are real truths about the world
Moral rules are inventions and groups of people can adopt, change or abandon them
Prescriptions to Principles
Moral rules are guidelines for specific actions in specific situations
moral rules are expressions of more general principles (fairness/equality)
Outcomes to Intentions
Unintentional acts that cause much harm are worse than intentional acts that cause mild harm
Morality of action is critically dependent on person’s state of mind and intentions
Woman dying of cancer and druggist has drug, Heinz breaks into store to get it
Preconventional Stage (children)
the morality of an action is primarily determined by its consequences for the actor.
Conventional Stage (entering teens)
the morality of an action is primarily determined by the extent to which it conforms to social rules.
Postconventional Stage (adulthood)
the morality of an action is determined by a set of general principles that reflect core values.
Research suggests the capacity for moral feelings is ___. Moral sense and desire to get along well with others can be nurtured or diminished by child’s ___.
Used to enforce punishment and authority to correct child’s misbehavior
Parents appeal to child’s good nature, empathy, love for parent, and sense of responsibility AND offer explanation of rules
begins with the onset of sexual maturity (about 11-14 yrs.) and lasts until the beginning of adulthood (about 18-21 yrs.).
the bodily changes associated with sexual maturity. Recently, onset has been earlier.
Primary Sex Characteristics
bodily structures that are directly involved in reproduction.
Secondary Sex Characteristics
bodily structures that change dramatically with sexual maturity but that are not directly involved in reproduction.
Time between childhood and adulthood has increased as onset of ___ becomes earlier
Adolescents are adults who have been __ a place in adult society so feel compelled to demonstrate independence
Boys externalize problems as ___
Girls internalize problems by ...
withdrawing or developing EDs
65% of American women report having had ___ by age 18, 90% by age 21