Test 4: Psychological Disorders Flashcards Preview

Psych 101 > Test 4: Psychological Disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test 4: Psychological Disorders Deck (62)
Loading flashcards...

Psychological disorders

-Disorders reflecting abnormalities of the mind.

-Disturbances in thoughts, feelings, and emotions that are persistent and uncontrollable.
-Symp. are associated with significant distress or impairment
-Symp. are from internal dysfunction (biological, psychological, both)


Medical Model

the conceptualization of psychological abnormalities as diseases that, like biological diseases, have symptoms, causes, and possible cures.
-diagnosis, symptoms, syndrome.


Intervention-causation fallacy

involves the assumption that if a treatment is effective, it must address the cause of the problem.



Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

-A classification system describing diagnostic criteria, symptoms, ways to distinguish one disorder from another
-Help clinicians communicate and target treatment


For each disorder, the DSM-V gives:

-Most common symptoms
-Typical age of onset
-Predisposing factors
-Course of disorder
-Prevalence of disorders
-Sex ratio
-Cultural issues



the co-occurrence of two or more disorders in a single individual.



World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale

-36 item, self administered measure of illness disability over past 30 days, applicable to any illness


Problems with DSM-V

-Danger of Over-Diagnosis
-Power of Diagnostic Labels
-Confusion of serious mental disorder (Schizophrenia) with less significant problems (caffeine-induced sleep disorder)
-Illusion of Objectivity and Universality


Diathesis-stress model

a model suggesting that a person may be predisposed for a mental disorder that remains unexpressed until triggered by stress.
-Nature AND Nurture


Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

-Long lasting feelings of apprehension and doom
-Chronic excessive worry accompanied > 3 of the following symptoms:
-Restlessness or keyed up or on edge
-concentration problems or mind goes blank
-muscle tension
-sleep disturbance.


Panic Disorder (PD)

recurring attacks of intense fear/panic/terror.
-Followed by > 1 of these symptoms for > 1 month :
-Attacks followed by persistent concern about having another attack.
-Worry about implications of attack.
-Significant change of behavior related to attacks.


Phobic Disorders

disorders characterized by marked, persistent, and excessive fear and avoidance of specific objects, activities, or situations.


Specific phobia

irrational fear of a particular object or situation that markedly interferes with an individual’s ability to function.
-Animals (snakes, spiders)
-Natural Environments (height, dark, storms)
-Situations (bridges, elevators)
-Blood, injections, injury
-Other (illness, death)



-(fear of public places)
-Anxiety in places or situation where escape might be hard or embarrassing OR where help may not be available if you have a panic attack.
-Situations are avoided or endured with marked distress/panic attack.


Panic Attack

discrete period of time of panic in which > 4 symptoms develop abruptly and reach peak by 10 minutes


Social Phobia

-irrational fear of being publicly humiliated or embarrassed.
-Situations where they are being observed like eating in a restaurant, public speaking, party, performance
-Fear they will do or say something humiliating


Preparedness Theory

the idea that people are instinctively predisposed toward certain fears.


Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

-Obsessions: recurrent, persistent, unwanted thoughts or images
-Contamination, death, sex, disease, orderliness, disfigurement, aggression

-Compulsions: repetitive, ritualized, stereotyped behaviors that person feels must be carried out to avoid disaster
-Cleaning, checking, repeating, ordering, counting


Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

-Recurrent, intrusive thoughts
-Negative alterations in cognitions or mood (neg beliefs about oneself or world, feeling alienated, blame of self or others, diminished interest)
-Alterations in arousal and reactivity (insomnia, irritability, impaired concentration)
-symptoms impair functioning
-More likely to develop PTSD if:
-Poor coping skills, previous trauma, low social support, lower IQ, smaller hippocampus, low SES


Depressive Disorders

Characterized by extreme and persistent periods of depressed mood.


Major Depression

>5 symptoms over 2 week period, must have depressed mood OR loss of interest in previously pleasurable activities (2x more common in women):
-Depressed mood
-Diminished interest or pleasure in activities
-Significant weight loss/gain OR decease/increase in appetite
-Insomnia or hypersomnia
-Psychomotor agitation or retardation (restless, slowed down)
-Fatigue or loss of energy
-Feelings of worthlessness or excessive inappropriate guilt
-Inability to concentrate, make decisions
-Recurrent thoughts of death, suicidal ideation with plan, suicide attempt



the same cognitive and bodily problems as in depression, but they are less severe and last longer – persisting for at least 2 years.


Double Depression

periodic major depression and dysthymia.


Postpartum Depression

after giving birth; biological, social & responsibility changes, lack of sleep/support


Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)

recurrent depressive episodes in a seasonal pattern.


Why do people develop depression?

-Genetic component, runs in families
-Neurotransmitter differences (low serotonin)
-Brain structure differences (but correlated not necessarily causal)


Helplessness Theory

attribute negative experiences to causes that are internal (their fault), stable (unlikely to change), and global (widespread).



-#3 cause of death in HS & college students
-In US, women attempts 3-4x more, but men 3-4x more likely to succeed. WHY?
-Men do more violent things (gunshot to head) women do less violent things (down a bottle of pills)
-Risk Factors: hopelessness


Bipolar Disorder

an unstable emotional condition characterized by cycles of abnormal, persistent high mood (mania), and low mood (depression).


Bipolar I

major depression + manic episode