Flashcards in Test 4: Psychological Disorders Deck (62)
-Disorders reflecting abnormalities of the mind.
-Disturbances in thoughts, feelings, and emotions that are persistent and uncontrollable.
-Symp. are associated with significant distress or impairment
-Symp. are from internal dysfunction (biological, psychological, both)
the conceptualization of psychological abnormalities as diseases that, like biological diseases, have symptoms, causes, and possible cures.
-diagnosis, symptoms, syndrome.
involves the assumption that if a treatment is effective, it must address the cause of the problem.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
-A classification system describing diagnostic criteria, symptoms, ways to distinguish one disorder from another
-Help clinicians communicate and target treatment
For each disorder, the DSM-V gives:
-Most common symptoms
-Typical age of onset
-Course of disorder
-Prevalence of disorders
the co-occurrence of two or more disorders in a single individual.
World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale
-36 item, self administered measure of illness disability over past 30 days, applicable to any illness
Problems with DSM-V
-Danger of Over-Diagnosis
-Power of Diagnostic Labels
-Confusion of serious mental disorder (Schizophrenia) with less significant problems (caffeine-induced sleep disorder)
-Illusion of Objectivity and Universality
a model suggesting that a person may be predisposed for a mental disorder that remains unexpressed until triggered by stress.
-Nature AND Nurture
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
-Long lasting feelings of apprehension and doom
-Chronic excessive worry accompanied > 3 of the following symptoms:
-Restlessness or keyed up or on edge
-concentration problems or mind goes blank
Panic Disorder (PD)
recurring attacks of intense fear/panic/terror.
-Followed by > 1 of these symptoms for > 1 month :
-Attacks followed by persistent concern about having another attack.
-Worry about implications of attack.
-Significant change of behavior related to attacks.
disorders characterized by marked, persistent, and excessive fear and avoidance of specific objects, activities, or situations.
irrational fear of a particular object or situation that markedly interferes with an individual’s ability to function.
-Animals (snakes, spiders)
-Natural Environments (height, dark, storms)
-Situations (bridges, elevators)
-Blood, injections, injury
-Other (illness, death)
-(fear of public places)
-Anxiety in places or situation where escape might be hard or embarrassing OR where help may not be available if you have a panic attack.
-Situations are avoided or endured with marked distress/panic attack.
discrete period of time of panic in which > 4 symptoms develop abruptly and reach peak by 10 minutes
-irrational fear of being publicly humiliated or embarrassed.
-Situations where they are being observed like eating in a restaurant, public speaking, party, performance
-Fear they will do or say something humiliating
the idea that people are instinctively predisposed toward certain fears.
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
-Obsessions: recurrent, persistent, unwanted thoughts or images
-Contamination, death, sex, disease, orderliness, disfigurement, aggression
-Compulsions: repetitive, ritualized, stereotyped behaviors that person feels must be carried out to avoid disaster
-Cleaning, checking, repeating, ordering, counting
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
-Recurrent, intrusive thoughts
-Negative alterations in cognitions or mood (neg beliefs about oneself or world, feeling alienated, blame of self or others, diminished interest)
-Alterations in arousal and reactivity (insomnia, irritability, impaired concentration)
-symptoms impair functioning
-More likely to develop PTSD if:
-Poor coping skills, previous trauma, low social support, lower IQ, smaller hippocampus, low SES
Characterized by extreme and persistent periods of depressed mood.
>5 symptoms over 2 week period, must have depressed mood OR loss of interest in previously pleasurable activities (2x more common in women):
-Diminished interest or pleasure in activities
-Significant weight loss/gain OR decease/increase in appetite
-Insomnia or hypersomnia
-Psychomotor agitation or retardation (restless, slowed down)
-Fatigue or loss of energy
-Feelings of worthlessness or excessive inappropriate guilt
-Inability to concentrate, make decisions
-Recurrent thoughts of death, suicidal ideation with plan, suicide attempt
the same cognitive and bodily problems as in depression, but they are less severe and last longer – persisting for at least 2 years.
periodic major depression and dysthymia.
after giving birth; biological, social & responsibility changes, lack of sleep/support
Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)
recurrent depressive episodes in a seasonal pattern.
Why do people develop depression?
-Genetic component, runs in families
-Neurotransmitter differences (low serotonin)
-Brain structure differences (but correlated not necessarily causal)
attribute negative experiences to causes that are internal (their fault), stable (unlikely to change), and global (widespread).
-#3 cause of death in HS & college students
-In US, women attempts 3-4x more, but men 3-4x more likely to succeed. WHY?
-Men do more violent things (gunshot to head) women do less violent things (down a bottle of pills)
-Risk Factors: hopelessness
an unstable emotional condition characterized by cycles of abnormal, persistent high mood (mania), and low mood (depression).