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Flashcards in Test 4: Psychological Disorders Deck (62)
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1

Psychological disorders

-Disorders reflecting abnormalities of the mind.

-Disturbances in thoughts, feelings, and emotions that are persistent and uncontrollable.
-Symp. are associated with significant distress or impairment
-Symp. are from internal dysfunction (biological, psychological, both)

2

Medical Model

the conceptualization of psychological abnormalities as diseases that, like biological diseases, have symptoms, causes, and possible cures.
-diagnosis, symptoms, syndrome.

3

Intervention-causation fallacy

involves the assumption that if a treatment is effective, it must address the cause of the problem.

4

DSM-V

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

-A classification system describing diagnostic criteria, symptoms, ways to distinguish one disorder from another
-Help clinicians communicate and target treatment

5

For each disorder, the DSM-V gives:

-Most common symptoms
-Typical age of onset
-Predisposing factors
-Course of disorder
-Prevalence of disorders
-Sex ratio
-Cultural issues

6

Comorbitity

the co-occurrence of two or more disorders in a single individual.

7

WHODAS

World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale

-36 item, self administered measure of illness disability over past 30 days, applicable to any illness

8

Problems with DSM-V

-Danger of Over-Diagnosis
-Power of Diagnostic Labels
-Confusion of serious mental disorder (Schizophrenia) with less significant problems (caffeine-induced sleep disorder)
-Illusion of Objectivity and Universality

9

Diathesis-stress model

a model suggesting that a person may be predisposed for a mental disorder that remains unexpressed until triggered by stress.
-Nature AND Nurture

10

Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

-Long lasting feelings of apprehension and doom
-Chronic excessive worry accompanied > 3 of the following symptoms:
-Restlessness or keyed up or on edge
-Fatigue
-concentration problems or mind goes blank
-Irritability
-muscle tension
-sleep disturbance.

11

Panic Disorder (PD)

recurring attacks of intense fear/panic/terror.
-Followed by > 1 of these symptoms for > 1 month :
-Attacks followed by persistent concern about having another attack.
-Worry about implications of attack.
-Significant change of behavior related to attacks.

12

Phobic Disorders

disorders characterized by marked, persistent, and excessive fear and avoidance of specific objects, activities, or situations.

13

Specific phobia

irrational fear of a particular object or situation that markedly interferes with an individual’s ability to function.
-Animals (snakes, spiders)
-Natural Environments (height, dark, storms)
-Situations (bridges, elevators)
-Blood, injections, injury
-Other (illness, death)

14

Agoraphobia

-(fear of public places)
-Anxiety in places or situation where escape might be hard or embarrassing OR where help may not be available if you have a panic attack.
-Situations are avoided or endured with marked distress/panic attack.

15

Panic Attack

discrete period of time of panic in which > 4 symptoms develop abruptly and reach peak by 10 minutes

16

Social Phobia

-irrational fear of being publicly humiliated or embarrassed.
-Situations where they are being observed like eating in a restaurant, public speaking, party, performance
-Fear they will do or say something humiliating

17

Preparedness Theory

the idea that people are instinctively predisposed toward certain fears.

18

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

-Obsessions: recurrent, persistent, unwanted thoughts or images
-Contamination, death, sex, disease, orderliness, disfigurement, aggression

-Compulsions: repetitive, ritualized, stereotyped behaviors that person feels must be carried out to avoid disaster
-Cleaning, checking, repeating, ordering, counting

19

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

-Trauma
-Recurrent, intrusive thoughts
-Negative alterations in cognitions or mood (neg beliefs about oneself or world, feeling alienated, blame of self or others, diminished interest)
-Alterations in arousal and reactivity (insomnia, irritability, impaired concentration)
-Avoidance
-symptoms impair functioning
-More likely to develop PTSD if:
-Poor coping skills, previous trauma, low social support, lower IQ, smaller hippocampus, low SES

20

Depressive Disorders

Characterized by extreme and persistent periods of depressed mood.

21

Major Depression

>5 symptoms over 2 week period, must have depressed mood OR loss of interest in previously pleasurable activities (2x more common in women):
-Depressed mood
-Diminished interest or pleasure in activities
-Significant weight loss/gain OR decease/increase in appetite
-Insomnia or hypersomnia
-Psychomotor agitation or retardation (restless, slowed down)
-Fatigue or loss of energy
-Feelings of worthlessness or excessive inappropriate guilt
-Inability to concentrate, make decisions
-Recurrent thoughts of death, suicidal ideation with plan, suicide attempt

22

Dysthymia

the same cognitive and bodily problems as in depression, but they are less severe and last longer – persisting for at least 2 years.

23

Double Depression

periodic major depression and dysthymia.

24

Postpartum Depression

after giving birth; biological, social & responsibility changes, lack of sleep/support

25

Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)

recurrent depressive episodes in a seasonal pattern.

26

Why do people develop depression?

-Genetic component, runs in families
-Neurotransmitter differences (low serotonin)
-Brain structure differences (but correlated not necessarily causal)

27

Helplessness Theory

attribute negative experiences to causes that are internal (their fault), stable (unlikely to change), and global (widespread).
ex-

28

Suicide

-#3 cause of death in HS & college students
-In US, women attempts 3-4x more, but men 3-4x more likely to succeed. WHY?
-Men do more violent things (gunshot to head) women do less violent things (down a bottle of pills)
-Risk Factors: hopelessness

29

Bipolar Disorder

an unstable emotional condition characterized by cycles of abnormal, persistent high mood (mania), and low mood (depression).

30

Bipolar I

major depression + manic episode