Flashcards in Test 2: Consciousness, Sleep, Drugs Deck (51):
the person’s subjective experience of the world and the mind.
an active system encompassing a lifetime of hidden memories, deepest instinct and desires, and an inner struggle to control these forces (Sigmund Freud).
a mental process that removes unacceptable thoughts and memories from consciousness.
the mental processes that give rise to a person’s thoughts, choices, emotions, and behavior even though they are not experienced by the person.
a thought or behavior that is influenced by stimuli that a person cannot consciously report perceiving
a biological rhythm with a period of about 24 hours
Stage 1 sleep
theta waves, light sleep
Stage 2 sleep
minor noises probably won’t disturb you
Stage 3 sleep
Stage 4 sleep
delta waves, deepest stage of sleep, shake to wake, HR slowed, muscles relaxed, may sleep walk
REM stage sleep
stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements and a high level of brain activity, dreaming. HR and BP increase, sexual arousal, body muscles are still (except for eyes)
Which stage of sleep is especially crucial for normal functioning?
Sleep provides “time out” for body to replenish…
-Eliminate waste from muscles
-Strengthen immune system
-Repair cells throughout body
____ is essential for memory consolidation and problem solving skills
difficulty in falling or staying asleep
a person stops breathing for brief periods while asleep.
-Causes many awakenings during night
-Detected by spouse most often
occurs when a person arises and walks around while asleep (sleepwalking).
-Safe to wake them
sudden REM sleep attacks occur in the middle of waking activities.
-Degradation of hypothalamus neurons
-Influenced by genetics
-Treated effectively with meds
abrupt awakenings with panic and intense emotional arousal (sleep terrors).
-Non REM sleep
REM Behavior Disorder
don’t have muscle paralysis that usually occurs in REM so people “act out” their dreams.
Five general characteristics of dreams
-Thought is illogical
-Sensations are fully formed
-Average college student has 24/year
-More common in children and adults who have experienced trauma
-Reflect prior day experiences (day residue)
-Things we are concerned about
-Images of recent past
Freud Dream Theory
Freud felt that dreams represent (suppressed) wishes, some unacceptable.
what we consciously experience
hidden meaning, the unconscious wishes being expressed symbolically
Dreams represent waking concerns and opportunities to resolve them.
-Dreams are generated when the cortex tries to make sense of random brainstem signals/neuron firing.
-Cortex attempts to synthesize or integrate signals with existing knowledge and memories to produce a coherent interpretation.
Drug addiction is a mindbug:
inability to look past the immediate consequences of our behaviors.
Rats will work for drugs, studies show...
90% die after 30 days of self-administered cocaine
a chemical that influences consciousness or behavior by altering the brain’s chemical message system.
the tendency for larger doses of a drug to be required over time to achieve the same effect.
substances that reduce the activity of the central nervous system (alcohol, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, toxic inhalants)
Short-term effects of depressants
Euphoria, reduced anxiety, slurred speech, poor judgment, delayed reaction
Long-term effects of depressants
cardiovascular and liver disease, pancreatitis, malabsorption, cancer, damage to CNS & PNS, impaired memory, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.
substances that excite the central nervous system, heightening arousal and activity levels (caffeine, amphetamines (Adderall), nicotine, cocaine, ecstasy).
Short-term effects of stimulants
euphoria, wakefulness, energetic, anxious, irritable, increased body temp, HR, BP, confusion, muscle spasms, blurred vision, fibrillation, stroke, seizure
Long-term effects of stimulants
paranoia, violent behavior, psychosis/weight loss, insomnia, cardiac or cardiovascular complications
highly addictive drugs derived from opium that relieve pain (heroin, morphine, methadone, codeine).
Short-term effects of narcotics/opiates
feeling of well-being, stupor, lethargy, impaired coordination, confusion, nausea, dizziness, heavy body feeling, slowed or arrested breathing, constipation
Long-term effects of narcotics/opiates
cardiac and cardiovascular difficulties, liver disease, pneumonia, hepatitis, HIV, fatal overdose
natural neurotransmitters that have a similar structure to opiates and that appear to play a role in how the brain copes internally with pain and stress.
drugs that alter sensation and perception and often cause visual and auditory hallucinations (LSD, mescaline, psilocybin, PCP, ketamine).
Short-term effects of hallucinogens
feeling of being separate from one’s body, impaired motor function, anxiety, tremors, numbness, memory loss, nausea,
Long-term effects of hallucinogens
flashbacks, mood swings, impaired thinking, violent outbursts, depression, psychosis
the leaves and buds of the hemp plant that produces a mildly hallucinogenic intoxication.
Short-term effects of marijuana
mild hallucinations, euphoria, heightened sense of sight/sound, perception of rush of ideas, decreases ST memory and learning, impairs motor skills and coordination, increase HR, appetite, and anxiety, panic attacks