Test 2: Consciousness, Sleep, Drugs Flashcards Preview

Psych 101 > Test 2: Consciousness, Sleep, Drugs > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test 2: Consciousness, Sleep, Drugs Deck (51):
1

Consciousness

the person’s subjective experience of the world and the mind.

2

Dynamic Unconscious

an active system encompassing a lifetime of hidden memories, deepest instinct and desires, and an inner struggle to control these forces (Sigmund Freud).

3

Repression

a mental process that removes unacceptable thoughts and memories from consciousness.

4

Freudian Unconscious

-dynamic unconscious
-repression
-Freudian slips

5

Cognitive Unconscious

the mental processes that give rise to a person’s thoughts, choices, emotions, and behavior even though they are not experienced by the person.

6

Subliminal perception

a thought or behavior that is influenced by stimuli that a person cannot consciously report perceiving

7

Circadian Rythm

a biological rhythm with a period of about 24 hours

8

Beta waves

alert, awake

9

Alpha waves

relaxation, drowsy

10

Stage 1 sleep

theta waves, light sleep

11

Stage 2 sleep

minor noises probably won’t disturb you

12

Stage 3 sleep

delta waves

13

Stage 4 sleep

delta waves, deepest stage of sleep, shake to wake, HR slowed, muscles relaxed, may sleep walk

14

REM stage sleep

stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements and a high level of brain activity, dreaming. HR and BP increase, sexual arousal, body muscles are still (except for eyes)

15

Which stage of sleep is especially crucial for normal functioning?

REM

16

Sleep provides “time out” for body to replenish…

-Eliminate waste from muscles
-Strengthen immune system
-Repair cells throughout body

17

____ is essential for memory consolidation and problem solving skills

Sleep

18

Insomnia

difficulty in falling or staying asleep

19

Sleep apnea

a person stops breathing for brief periods while asleep.
-Causes many awakenings during night
-Detected by spouse most often

20

Somnambulism

occurs when a person arises and walks around while asleep (sleepwalking).
-Safe to wake them

21

Narcolepsy

sudden REM sleep attacks occur in the middle of waking activities.
-Degradation of hypothalamus neurons
-Influenced by genetics
-Treated effectively with meds

22

Night/sleep terrors

abrupt awakenings with panic and intense emotional arousal (sleep terrors).
-Non REM sleep

23

REM Behavior Disorder

don’t have muscle paralysis that usually occurs in REM so people “act out” their dreams.

24

Five general characteristics of dreams

-Intense emotion
-Thought is illogical
-Sensations are fully formed
-Uncritical acceptance
-Difficulty remembering

25

Nightmares

-Average college student has 24/year
-More common in children and adults who have experienced trauma

26

Mundane Dreams

-Reflect prior day experiences (day residue)
-Things we are concerned about
-Images of recent past

27

Freud Dream Theory

Freud felt that dreams represent (suppressed) wishes, some unacceptable.

28

Manifest content

what we consciously experience

29

Latent content

hidden meaning, the unconscious wishes being expressed symbolically

30

Problem-focused approach

Dreams represent waking concerns and opportunities to resolve them.

31

Activation-synthesis model

-Dreams are generated when the cortex tries to make sense of random brainstem signals/neuron firing.
-Cortex attempts to synthesize or integrate signals with existing knowledge and memories to produce a coherent interpretation.

32

Drug addiction is a mindbug:

inability to look past the immediate consequences of our behaviors.

33

Rats will work for drugs, studies show...

90% die after 30 days of self-administered cocaine

34

Psychoactive drug

a chemical that influences consciousness or behavior by altering the brain’s chemical message system.

35

Drug tolerance

the tendency for larger doses of a drug to be required over time to achieve the same effect.

36

Depressants

substances that reduce the activity of the central nervous system (alcohol, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, toxic inhalants)

37

Short-term effects of depressants

Euphoria, reduced anxiety, slurred speech, poor judgment, delayed reaction

38

Long-term effects of depressants

cardiovascular and liver disease, pancreatitis, malabsorption, cancer, damage to CNS & PNS, impaired memory, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.

39

Stimulants

substances that excite the central nervous system, heightening arousal and activity levels (caffeine, amphetamines (Adderall), nicotine, cocaine, ecstasy).

40

Short-term effects of stimulants

euphoria, wakefulness, energetic, anxious, irritable, increased body temp, HR, BP, confusion, muscle spasms, blurred vision, fibrillation, stroke, seizure

41

Long-term effects of stimulants

paranoia, violent behavior, psychosis/weight loss, insomnia, cardiac or cardiovascular complications

42

Narcotics/opiates

highly addictive drugs derived from opium that relieve pain (heroin, morphine, methadone, codeine).

43

Short-term effects of narcotics/opiates

feeling of well-being, stupor, lethargy, impaired coordination, confusion, nausea, dizziness, heavy body feeling, slowed or arrested breathing, constipation

44

Long-term effects of narcotics/opiates

cardiac and cardiovascular difficulties, liver disease, pneumonia, hepatitis, HIV, fatal overdose

45

endorphins/endogenous opiates

natural neurotransmitters that have a similar structure to opiates and that appear to play a role in how the brain copes internally with pain and stress.

46

Hallucinogens

drugs that alter sensation and perception and often cause visual and auditory hallucinations (LSD, mescaline, psilocybin, PCP, ketamine).

47

Short-term effects of hallucinogens

feeling of being separate from one’s body, impaired motor function, anxiety, tremors, numbness, memory loss, nausea,

48

Long-term effects of hallucinogens

flashbacks, mood swings, impaired thinking, violent outbursts, depression, psychosis

49

Marijuana

the leaves and buds of the hemp plant that produces a mildly hallucinogenic intoxication.

50

Short-term effects of marijuana

mild hallucinations, euphoria, heightened sense of sight/sound, perception of rush of ideas, decreases ST memory and learning, impairs motor skills and coordination, increase HR, appetite, and anxiety, panic attacks

51

Long-term effects of marijuana

respiratory problems, memory, mental health decline