Test 1: Research Methods Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test 1: Research Methods Deck (28):
1

Three things that make people especially difficult to study:

Complexity, variability, reactivity

2

Case Studies

-Detailed description of an individual
-Observations, formal psychological testing, drawings, clinical interviews, questionnaires, family interviews
-ex- Genie

3

Observational Study

Researcher observes, measures, records behavior while trying to avoid intruding on the people being observed

4

Naturalistic Observation

observe people in natural setting (home, school)

5

Laboratory Observation

researchers have more control over situation

6

Problems with Observational Studies?

-Mere presence of researchers and equipment will change how people behave
-only correlational and not causal

7

Psychological Tests (Assessments)

Measure personality traits, emotional states, IQ, abilities

8

Test-retest reliability

Give people the same test twice

9

Alternate-forms reliability

Give people two versions of the same test

10

Reliability

produce same result across time, place, and scorer

11

Validity

it must measure what it sets out to measure

12

Construct validity

items broadly represent the trait in question

13

Predictive validity

ability to predict other measures of the trait in question, related traits

14

Power

the ability of a measure to detect differences

15

Surveys

questionnaires and interviews that gather info by asking people directly about their experiences, attitudes, opinions.

16

Representative sample

a group of participants that accurately represents the larger population the researcher wishes to describe.

17

Problems with Surveys?

Volunteer bias
People lie
Researcher's bias

18

Correlational study

a descriptive study that looks for a consistent relationship between two phenomena

19

Correlation

a measure of how strongly two variables are related to one another.
Pero, correlation does not establish causation

20

Experiment

a controlled test of a hypothesis in which a researcher manipulates one variable to discover its effect on another.

21

Control Group

Need a control group to be sure that the behavior you are interested in would not have occurred anyway

22

Experimenter Effects

-Experimenters can influence the results of a study (facial expressions (smile), tone of voice)
-Rosenthal (1966)
-“maze bright” and “maze dull” rat

23

Single-blind study

participants don’t know which group they are in (still have EEs)

24

Double blind study

both tester and subject are blinded

25

Descriptive statistics

statistical procedures that organize and summarize data

26

Inferential Statistics

allow researchers to draw inferences about how statistically meaningful a study’s results are.

27

Cross-sectional Experiment

A study in which subjects of different ages (or any groups) are compared at a given time.

28

Longitudinal

A study in which subjects are followed and periodically reassessed over a period of time.