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Flashcards in Test 4: Treatment of Psychological Disorders Deck (65)
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People fail to get treatment because...

-they may not realize that their disorder needs to be treated
-there may be barriers to treatment
-they may not know where to look for services


Approaches to treatment include:

-Psychotherapy (Psychodynamic, behavioral, cognitive, humanist, existential, family, couples, group)

-Biological (surgical, medical, drugs)



an interaction between a therapist and someone suffering from a psychological problem, with the goal of providing support or relief from the problem.


Eclectic psychotherapy

a form of psychotherapy that involves drawing on techniques from different forms of therapy, depending on the client and the problem


Psychodynamic psychotherapies

explore childhood events and encourage individuals to use this understanding to develop insight into their psychological problems
-Assumes that humans are born with urges that are suppressed through defense mechanisms.
-Goal is to bring repressed conflicts to consciousness to understand them and reduce their influence.


Free Association

the client reports every thought that enters the mind and the therapist looks for recurring themes.


Dream Analysis

the therapist looks for dream elements that symbolize unconscious conflicts of wishes



Psychoanalyst suggestion of why the client has these problems



reluctance to cooperate with treatment for fear of confronting unpleasant unconscious material.



-Assumes that disordered behavior is learned
-Symptom relief is achieved through changing overt maladaptive behaviors into more constructive behaviors.


Goal of Behavioral Therapy:

-eliminate unwanted behaviors (by changing consequences)
-promote desired behaviors
-reduce unwanted emotional responses.


Behavioral self-monitoring

the simple acts of measuring one's target behavior and comparing it to an external standard or goal can result in lasting improvements to that behavior


Token Economy

giving clients tokens for desired behaviors, which they can later trade for rewards


Skills Training

Social skills training (SST) is a form of behavior therapy used by teachers, therapists, and trainers to help persons who have difficulties relating to other people.


Exposure Therapy

confronting an emotion-arousing stimulus directly and repeatedly, ultimately leading to a decrease in the emotional response


Systematic Desensitation

is a behavioral technique whereby a person is gradually exposed to an anxiety-producing object, event or place, while being engaged in some type of relaxation at the same time in order to reduce the symptoms of anxiety.
-hierarchy of fear


Cognitive Therapy

involves helping a client identify and correct any distorted thinking about the self, others, and the world.


Cognitive Restructuring

-teaches clients to question the automatic beliefs, assumptions, and predictions that often lead to negative emotions and to replace negative thinking with more realistic and positive beliefs.
-Examine evidence for and against belief
-Increase acceptance of negative outcomes that may be undesirable but manageable


All or Nothing Thinking

You see things in black and white categories If a situation falls short of perfect, you see it as a total failure. When a young woman on a diet ate a spoonful of ice cream, she told herself, 'I've blown my diet completely.' This thought upset her so much that she gobbled down an entire quart of ice cream!



You see a single negative event, such as a romantic rejection or a career reversal as a never-ending pattern of defeat by using words such as 'always' or "never" when you think about it. A depressed salesman became terribly upset when he noticed bird dung on the windshield of his car. He told himself, 'Just my luck! Birds are always crapping on my car!'


Mental Filter

You pick out a single negative detail and dwell on it exclusively, so that your vision of all of reality becomes darkened, like the drop of ink that discolors a beaker of water. Example: You receive many positive comments about your presentation to a group of associates at work, but one of them says something mildly critical. You obsess about his reaction for days and ignore all the positive feedback.


Discounting the Positive

You reject positive experiences by insisting they 'don't count.' If you do a good job, you may tell yourself that it wasn't good enough or that anyone could have done as well. Discounting the positive takes the joy out of life and makes you feel inadequate and unrewarded.


Jumping to Conclusions

You interpret things negatively when there are no facts to support your conclusion.



Without checking it out, you arbitrarily conclude that someone is reacting negatively to you.



You predict that things will turn out badly. Before a test you may tell yourself, 'I'm really going to blow it. What if I flunk?' If you're depressed you may tell yourself, 'I'll never get better.



You exaggerate the importance of your problems and shortcomings, or you minimize the importance of your desirable qualities.


Emotional Reasoning

You assume that your negative emotions necessarily reflect the way things really are: 'I feel terrified about going on airplanes. It must be very dangerous to fly.' Or 'I feel guilty. I must be a rotten person.' Or 'I feel angry. This proves I'm being treated unfairly.' Or I feel so inferior. This means I'm a second-rate person.' Or 'I feel hopeless. I must really be hopeless.'


"Should Statements"

You tell yourself that things should be the way you hoped or expected them to be. 'Should statements' that are directed against yourself lead to guilt and frustration. Should statements that are directed against other people or the world in general lead to anger and frustration



Labeling is an extreme form of all-or-nothing thinking. Instead of saying 'I made a mistake.' you attach a negative label to yourself: 'I'm a loser.' You might also label yourself 'a fool' or 'a failure' or 'a jerk.' Labeling is quite irrational because you are not the same as what you do. These labels are useless abstractions that lead to anger, anxiety, frustration, and low self- esteem.


Personalization and Blame

Personalization occurs when you hold yourself personally responsible for an event that isn't entirely under your control. When a woman received a note that her child was having difficulties at school, she told herself, 'this shows what a bad mother I am,' instead of trying to pinpoint the cause of the problem so that she could be helpful to her child.


Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)

-is a blend of cognitive and behavioral therapeutic strategies.
-Assume thoughts and behaviors influence each other


Problem-focused CBT

used for specific problem (panic attacks)


Action-oriented CBT

Pt expected to do things (relaxation, homework, behavior /feeling diary)


Transparent CBT

nothing is withheld from Pt. They understand all techniques used and how they work.


Person(Client)-centered therapy

-assumes all individuals have a tendency toward growth and that this growth can be facilitated by acceptance and genuine reactions from the therapist
-Goal: with adequate support, Pt will recognize the right things to do and increase self regard



therapist tends not to provide advice or suggestions about what the client should be doing



being open and honest in the therapeutic relationship and communicating the same message at all levels



refers to the continuous process of trying to understand the client by getting inside his or her way of thinking, feeling, and understanding the world.


Unconditional Positive Regard

meaning the therapist must provide a nonjudgmental, warm, and accepting, environment in which the client can feel safe when expressing his or her thoughts and feelings.


Gestalt/Existential Therapy

help the client become aware of his/her thoughts, behaviors, experiences, and feelings AND to “own” or take responsibility for them.
-Goal: cope with inescapable realities of life, death, and the struggle for meaning.
-Greater awareness of “here and now” will lead to full and meaningful life.


Gestalt Techniques

-Therapist is warm and enthusiastic to Pts
-Emphasize experiences in present therapy session (here and now)



As Pt describes stressful events from the week, therapist asks how it feels to talk about it today.


Somatic Sensations

discuss body movements and feelings seen in therapy (clench fists, shake leg)


Empty Chair Technique

Client encouraged to imagine that another person is sitting across from them in a chair. The client then moves from chair to chair, role-playing what he or she would say to the imagined person and what that person would answer.


Group Therapy Techniques

multiple participants work on individual problems in a group atmosphere.


Group Therapy

Encourage participants to talk to each other, practice relating to others, you are not alone, share insights on how to cope


Self-Help and Support Groups

-AA, Al-Anon
-Often run by peers who have struggled with same issues


Couples Therapy

Break repetitive dysfunctional patterns


Family Therapy

Problem in one family member is associated with dysfunction in entire family



the study of drug effects on psychological states and symptoms.


Antipsychotic Drugs

medications used to treat schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders


Conventional or Typical Antipsychotics

-Block dopamine receptors
-Side effect: tardive dyskenesia (involuntary movement of face, mouth, extremities)


Newer atypical antipsychotics

Clozaril, Risperidal
Address dopamine and serotonin receptors


Anti-Anxiety Drugs

medications used to reduce a person’s experience of fear or anxiety.



-are the most common anti-anxiety drugs
-Facilitate GABA which induces calming effect
-Fast acting for panic symptoms
-Valium, Xanaz
-MDs are cautious to prescribe because high potential for abuse, tolerance and withdrawal


Drug used to treat GAD



Drug used to treat panic and social anziety



Antidepressant Drugs

medications used to help lift people’s mood.


monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)

-Prevent breakdown of norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine
-Severe side effects, rarely prescribed anymore


Tricyclic Antidepressants

-Block reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin
-Moderate side effects


selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)

-Block reuptake of serotonin
-Prozac, Paxil
-Fewer side effects so most commonly prescribed


Side Effects of Antidepressants

dry mouth, headaches, constipation, nausea, restlessness, gastrointestinal issues, weight gain, sexual desire blocked


Mood Stabilizers for Bipolar Disorder

WARNING: Antidepressants may trigger manic episode so must be diagnosed properly!

-Regulates glutamate in brain
-Side effects: kidney and thyroid damage so must monitor blood levels

Antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, benzodiazepines also used to treat bipolar disorder.


Herbal Products

-Easy to acquire
-Cheap, over the counter
-Perceived as being better for you because “natural”
-NOT monitored by FDA
-Limited research to support effectiveness
-St. John’s Wart (depression)
-Interacts with about half of prescription medications (birth control, blood thinners)


Caution about Medications

-Placebo effect
-High relapse and drop out rates
-Dosage difficulties