Flashcards in Tumour Pathology 3 Deck (14):
What are the local effects of a benign tumour? (2)
What are the local effects of a malignant tumour? (6)
-tissue destruction including ulceration and infection
-bleeding including anaemia and haemorrhage
-pain from pressure on nerves, perineural (tumours growing along the nerve fibres)infiltration and bone pain from pathological fractures
-effects of treatment
What are the systemic effects of a malignant tumours? (4)
-secretion of hormones
-effects of treatment
What is considered normal hormone production by tumours?
-Produced by tumours of the endocrine organ
-there is abnormal control of hormone production/secretion
What is considered abnormal or inappropriate hormone production by tumours?
-produced by tumour from an organ that does not normally produce hormone
What are 2 examples of inappropriate hormone secretion
-ACTH stimulates the adrenal gland to produce steroid hormones in lung cancer
-ADH in lung cancer
What is a paraneoplastic syndrome?
It cannot be explained by local metastatic effects of tumours e.g. neuropathy or myopathy
-Patients can present with these signs and symptoms rather than the classic symptoms associated with a specific cancer
-Possibly caused by immune mechanism or the production of hormone/growth factor
Why is it important to detect cancer at an early stage?
-to reduce/prevent morbidity/mortality
-detection at pre-invasive stage allows for identification of dysplasia/intraepithelial neoplasia
What is dysplasia?
-It is a pre-malignant change
-It is the earliest change in the process of malignancy that can be visualised
-It can progress to cancer
How is dysplasia characterised?
-Identified in epithelium
-There is no invasion
What is the only difference between dysplasia and malignancy?
-The presence of invasion in malignancy
What are 3 features of dysplasia?
-disorganisation of cell including increased nuclear size and mitotic activity and abnormal mitosis
-Grading of dysplasia including high and low grades
What does early detection of cancer require
-an effective test that is sensitive/specific and acceptable
-for example, cervical cancer screening