Tumour Pathology 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Tumour Pathology 3 Deck (14):
1

What are the local effects of a benign tumour? (2)

-pressure
-obstruction

2

What are the local effects of a malignant tumour? (6)

-pressure
-obstruction
-tissue destruction including ulceration and infection
-bleeding including anaemia and haemorrhage
-pain from pressure on nerves, perineural (tumours growing along the nerve fibres)infiltration and bone pain from pathological fractures
-effects of treatment

3

What are the systemic effects of a malignant tumours? (4)

-secretion of hormones
-weight loss
-paraneoplastic syndromes
-effects of treatment

4

What is considered normal hormone production by tumours?

-Produced by tumours of the endocrine organ
-there is abnormal control of hormone production/secretion

5

What is considered abnormal or inappropriate hormone production by tumours?

-produced by tumour from an organ that does not normally produce hormone

6

What are 2 examples of inappropriate hormone secretion

-ACTH stimulates the adrenal gland to produce steroid hormones in lung cancer
-ADH in lung cancer

7

What is a paraneoplastic syndrome?

It cannot be explained by local metastatic effects of tumours e.g. neuropathy or myopathy
-Patients can present with these signs and symptoms rather than the classic symptoms associated with a specific cancer
-Possibly caused by immune mechanism or the production of hormone/growth factor

8

Why is it important to detect cancer at an early stage?

-to reduce/prevent morbidity/mortality
-detection at pre-invasive stage allows for identification of dysplasia/intraepithelial neoplasia

9

What is dysplasia?

-It is a pre-malignant change
-It is the earliest change in the process of malignancy that can be visualised
-It can progress to cancer

10

How is dysplasia characterised?

-Identified in epithelium
-There is no invasion

11

What is the only difference between dysplasia and malignancy?

-The presence of invasion in malignancy

12

What are 3 features of dysplasia?

-disorganisation of cell including increased nuclear size and mitotic activity and abnormal mitosis
-Grading of dysplasia including high and low grades
-no invasion

13

What does early detection of cancer require

-an effective test that is sensitive/specific and acceptable
-for example, cervical cancer screening

14

What is the aim of the NHS's cervical cancer screening?

-to reduce incidence of squamous carcinoma of cervix by detection of dysplastic cells from squamous epithelium of cervix