Flashcards in Chronic Inflammation 1 Deck (22)
What is chronic inflammation?
-Inflammation in which the cell population is especially lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages.
-It features tissue/organ damage and loss of function
How can chronic inflammation arise?
-It may follow form ongoing acute inflammation
-It may arise as primary pathology
What are the clinical presentations of chronic inflammation/?
-no specific area of pain
-malaise and weight loss (i.e tuberculosis which has a systemic effect)
-loss of function
Name 3 conditions in which there is loss of function.
-Autoimmune thyroiditis (functional gland destruction)=
-Crohn's disease (GI tract ulceration and fibrosis)= pain, diarrhoea, gut obstruction
-Leprosy (cutaneous nerve destruction) =loss of sensation
When does acute inflammation become chronic?
When there is a large volume of damage with the inability to remove debris which leads to the failure of resolution
When does chronic inflammation arise as a primary lesion?
When there is not preceding acute phase and chronic changes are only seen.
What is organisation ?
-An outcome of acute inflammation
-granulation tissue is characteristic of organisation
-results in healing and repair
-leads to fibrosis and formation of a scar
What is the mechanism and function of granulation tissue?
-Capillaries grow into the inflammatory mass and allow access of plasma proteins and macrophages from the blood and tissue.
-fibroblasts lay down collagen to repair the damage tissue and to replace the inflammatory exudate
-this patches the tissue defect, replaces the dead/necrotic tissue and allows or contraction/pulling together
What are the products of granulation tissue?
-fibrous tissue in the form of a scar
-fibrosis which is adhesions between loops of bowel following peritonitis
- can cause progression to chronic inflammation
ask Michael/Ben about slide 18 and 19
What cells are involved in chronic inflammation?
What tissue components are involved in chronic inflammation?
What are lymphocytes?
-cells in the immune system
-small round cells with lots of subtypes and functions
-main types are T-cell
-main functions are immune response and immune memory
What are plasma cells?
-differentiated B-cell of intermediate size
-responsible for antibody production
What are the mechanisms of B-cells?
-they differentiate to plasma cells for antibody production
-facilitate immune response
-act with macrophages = antigen presenting capacity
What are the mechanisms of T-cells?
-damage and kill other cells and destroy antigen
What do cytokines do?
They attract and hold macrophages activating them and other cells such as lymphocytes altering permeability
What do interferons do?
They have antiviral effects and they attract and stimulate other cells
What are the mechanisms of NK cells?
NK cells destroy antigens and cells using granule proteins
What do macrophages do?
-The remove debris and act as antigen presenting cells
What are the mechanisms of macrophages?
-Move from the blood and take over from neutrophils.
-They contain enzymes such as lysozyme and produce interferons and other chemicals