Chronic Inflammation 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chronic Inflammation 2 Deck (27):
1

What is granulomatous inflammation characterised by?

presence of granulomas in tissues and organ

2

What is granulomatous tissue stimulated by?

indigestible antigen that the body cannot get rid of

3

What does granulomatous inflammation cause?

many serious infections and idiopathic diseases

4

What are granulomas?

-aggregates of epithelioid macrophages in tissues
-may contain giant cells
-may surround dead material
-may be surrounded by lymphocytes
-contain neutrophils, eosinophils
-response to indigestible antigen
-many are type IV hypersensitivity reactions

5

What are giant cells?

-the fusion of macrophages to form larger cells
-large cytoplasm: multiple nuclei

6

What are Langhans type cells?

-classically found in TB
-peripheral rim of nuclei
-large eosinophilic cytoplasm

7

Describe foreign bodies in granulomatous tissue?

-often associated with pyogenic granulation tissue
-acutely inflamed
-neutrophils, pus
-organisation
-giant cells

8

What can vacuoles containing silicone arise from?

ruptured silicone implants

9

When are Warthin-Finkeldy rarely seen?

in measles

10

What are 3 examples of granulomatous diseases?

-Tuberculosis
-Leprosy
-Syphilis

11

What is caseous necrosis?

dead tissue surrounded by macrophages, giant cells, lymphocytes

12

What drug combination kills the pathogen that causes leprosy?

-dapson
-rifampicin
-clofazimine

13

What are 3 examples of condition that involve non-infective granulomas?

-rheumatoid disease
-sarcoidosis
-Crohn's disease

14

Describe the basic mechanism of wound healing?

-phase of acute inflammation
-granulations tissue formation
-local angiogenesis
-fibrosis and scar formation

15

Describe surgical wound healing?

-healing by primary intention
-minimal gap-blood clot forms
-small amount of granulation tissue
-small linear scar

16

Describe healing of larger defects?

-healing by secondary intention
-lots of granulation tissue ingrowth
-contraction and scarring

17

What is the sequence of events from wound to repair?

-injury, blood clot, acute inflammation, fibrin
-many growth factors and cytokines involved
-granulation tissue growth- angiogenesis
-phagocytosis of fibrin
-myofibroblasts move in and lay down collagen
-contraction of scar
-re-epithelialisation

18

What improves wound healing?

-cleanliness
-apposition of edges
-sound nutrition
-metabolic stability and normality
-normal inflammatory and coagulation mechanisms
-local mediator involvement

19

What impairs wound healing?

-dirty,gaping wound with large hematoma
-poorly nourished, lack of vitamin C,A
-abnormal CHO metabolism, diabetes, corticosteroid therapy
-inhibition of angiogenesis

20

How does fracture healing differ from wound healing?

It is a modified situation in bone as there has to be repair of bony structure as well as soft tissue

21

Describe the sequence of events in fracture healing?

-trauma, fracture, hematoma
-bits of dead bone and soft tissue
-acute inflammation, organisation, granulation tissue, macrophages remove debris
-granulation tissue contains osteoblasts as well as fibroblasts

22

Describe callus formation.

-osteoblasts lay down woven bone
-nodules of cartilage present
-followed by bone remodelling

23

What does bone remodelling involve?

-osteoclasts remove dead bone
-progressive replacement of woven bone by lamellar bone
-reformation of cortical and trabecular bone

24

What stimulates proliferation in angiogenesis?

VEGF released by hypoxic cells

25

What does angiogenesis and organisation in thrombosis do?

-limits thrombus propagation
-reinstatement of flow

26

What role does angiogenesis play in malignant tumours?

-angiogenesis occurs as tumour grows
-potential for therapeutic control

27

What role does fibrosis and scarring play in atherosclerosis?

-similarities with chronic inflammation