Virus Pathogenesis Flashcards Preview

Principles of Disease > Virus Pathogenesis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Virus Pathogenesis Deck (19):
1

What are 3 virus pathogenic mechanisms?

-cell destruction following virus infection
-virus induced changes to cellular gene expression (cellular transformation by tumour viruses)
-immunopathogenic disease

2

What is an example of cell destruction following viral infection?

Death of T4+ cells by HIV

3

What are 2 examples of immunopathogenic disease?

-influenza A virus
Coxsackievirus- induced myocarditis

4

What are the site of viral entry? (7)

-conjunctiva
-arthropod
-capillary
-skin
-respiratory tract
-alimentary tract
-urogenital tract

5

What kind of virus does the influenza A virus cause?

respiratory infection

6

What kind of infections does enterovirus cause?

-enteric
-neurological

7

Describe the process of infection by the influenza A virus.

-virus infects cells of the respiratory tract
-destruction of respiratory epithelium
-altered cytokine expression leading to fever

8

Name 2 examples of cytokines that when expression is altered can lead to fever.

-interleukin-1
-interferon

9

What can cause a cytokine storm?

Avian influenza virus (H5N1)

10

What is antigenic drift?

gradual evolution of viruses to generate antigenic variants

11

What is antigenic shift??

significant changes in virus antigenic structure

12

What plays a key role in generating new virus types through antigenic shift?

non-human hosts

13

Name 5 examples of conditions and the enterovirus they are caused by.

-poliomyelitis (poliovirus)
-aseptic meningitis (many enteroviruses)
-myocarditis (coxsackie B viruses)
-pancreatitis (coxsackie B viurses)
-respiratory infection (many enteroviruses)

14

Give an example of a latent virus which has 2 types.

-Herpes simplex virus
-Type 1 =cold sores
-Type 2= genital lesions

15

Describe the process of infection by the latent herpes virus.

-primary infection of epithelial cells
-virus migrates to ganglia
-virus remains latent in nucleus= no virus replication
-stimuli such as sunlight reactivates virus
-virus migration to epithelial cells leading to virus replication

16

Give 2 examples of viruses which can induce tumours and what they can cause.

-Papillomaviruses- cervical carcinoma
-Retroviruses- lymphomas and leukaemias

17

What does HTLV-1 cause and how is it transmitted?

-variety of diseases including leukaemia (adult T cell lymphoma-leukaemia)
-transmission by blood and mother to child

18

What does HTLV-1 do?

modifies host cell gene expression using a transactivating protein (tax)

19

Describe the process in which retrovirus can induce tumours.

-virus infects cell
-virus nucleic acid, as DNA , integrates into cellular genome
-virus causes changes in cellular gene expression
-uncontrolled cell multiplication and tumour formation