Tumour Pathology 5 Flashcards Preview

Principles of Disease > Tumour Pathology 5 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Tumour Pathology 5 Deck (31):
1

What influences disorders of cell growth?

-Tumour suppressor genes
-Inherited factors in carcinogenesis
-Oncogenes
-Viral carcinogenesis
-Precursors of cancer
-Multistep process of tumour development

2

What influences carcinogenesis?

-Geographic and environmental factors
-Age
-Hereditary

3

What are proto-oncogenes?

-Normal genes that promote normal cell growth and mitosis

4

What are tumour suppressor genes?

Normal growth inhibiting genes

5

What do tumour suppressor genes include?

-Genes negatively regulating mitosis-Rb
-Genes regulating apoptosis
-Genes regulating DNA repair

6

What usually happen to tumour suppressor genes before a normal cell transforms into a cancer cell?

A series of several mutations

7

What is a key event in tumour formation?

Uncontrolled cell proliferation via cell cycle dysregulation via loss of tumour suppressor gene function

8

What is the retinoblastoma gene?

An anti-oncogene

9

What do Rb gene mutations favour?

Cell proliferation

10

What mimics the effect of pRb loss?

Mutations in other genes controlling pRb phosphorylation
-Mutational activation of cyclin D or CDK4
-Mutational inactivation of CDKIs also drive proliferation

11

What releases the cell cycle brake?

Absent or inactive pRb

12

What has to happen to tumour suppressor genes for cancer to arise?

There must be loss/inactivation of both normal allelic copies

13

Describe the 2 hit hypothesis in the inherited and sporadic forms of anti-oncogenes such as Rb.

Inherited form
-One defective inherited copy of pRb
-Somatic point mutation of other copy
Sporadic form
-Both hits occur in a single cell

14

What chromosome contains the defective inherited copy of pRb?

13q14

15

How can carcinogenesis be hereditary?

-Inherited cancer syndromes
-Familial cancers
-Autosomal recessive syndromes of defective DNA repair

16

Describe inheritance of cancer syndromes?

-Strong family history of uncommon site-specific cancers
-Autosomal dominant inheritance of a single mutant gene

17

Give examples of inherited cancer syndromes?

-Familial retinoblastoma
-Familial adenomatous polyposis of colon
-Multiple endocrine neoplasia
-Neurofibromatosis
-Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome

18

Describe familial cancers.

-Family clustering of cancers but individual predisposition unclear
-Multifactorial inheritance
-Early age of onset
-Multiple/bilateral tumours

19

Give examples of familial cancers.

-Some breast cancers
-Some ovarian cancers
-Non-FAP colon cancers

20

What are oncogenes?

Cancer causing genes derived from proto-oncogenes

21

How are oncogenes activated?

Alteration of proto-oncogene structure
-Point mutation
-Chromosome rearrangements and translocations
Dysregulation of proto-oncogene expression
-Gene amplification
-Overexpression

22

What do oncogenes generate?

Active oncoprotein products

23

Give examples of active oncoprotein products.

-Growth factors
-Growth factor receptors
-Proteins involved in signal transduction
-Nuclear regulatory proteins
-Cell cycle regulators

24

What are 2 exampled of cancer which can arise as a result of overexpression of oncogenes?

-Burkitt lymphoma: C-myc moves close to IgH gene
-Mantle cell lymphoma: cyclin D1 gene to IgH

25

Give an example of a cancer that results due to recombination to form chimeric proteins.

Chronic myeloid leukaemia

26

What DNA viruses are known to cause cancer in humans?

-HPV (cervical cancer)
-Hepatitis B (liver cancer)
-EBV (Burkitt lymphoma)

27

What are the different mechanisms or viral carcinogenesis?

-Virus genome inserts near a host proto-oncogene
-Viral promoter or other transcription regulation elements cause proto-oncogene over-expression
-Retroviruses insert an oncogene into host DNA causing cell division

28

What is a DNA adduct?

A chemical carcinogen or their active metabolite which reacts to form covalently bound products

29

How does chemical carcinogenesis work?

DNA adduct formation at particular chromosome sites lead to activation of oncogenes and suppression of anti-oncogenes

30

Why is carcinogenesis considered a multistep process?

-All sporadic cancers harbour multiple genetic aberrations
-Abnormalities accumulate with time
-Activation of several oncogenes and loss of 2 or more anti-oncogenes occurs in most cancers

31

What are the key regulators in cancer?

-p16
-cyclin D
-CDK4
-Rb
-In the majority of cancers these are mutated