Flashcards in Unit 6 Exam Deck (51):
an organisms decreasing response to a stimulus with repeated exposure to it.
learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning).
a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events.
the that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2).
unconditioned response (ur)
the unlearned naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (us), such as salivation when food is in the mouth.
unconditioned stimulus (us)
a stimulus that unconditionally - naturally and automatically - triggers a response
conditioned response (cr)
the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (cs)
conditioned stimulus (cs)
in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to trigger a conditioned response.
in classical conditioning, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response.
a procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus. For example, an animal that has learned that a tone predicts food might then learn that a light predicts the tone and begin responding to the light alone
the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus (us) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (cs); occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer enforced
the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response.
the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses.
in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditional stimulus.
the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events.
behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimuli
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences
law of effect
Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely.
in operant conditioning research, a chamber (also known as a "Skinner Box") containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer; attached devices record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking
an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior.
in operant conditioning, a stimulus that elicits a response after association with reinforcement (in contrast to related stimuli not associated with reinforcement)
in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
increasing behaviors by presenting a positive stimuli, such as food. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response.
increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response. negative reinforcement is not punishment
an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need.
a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer; also known as a secondary reinforcer.
reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs.
partial (intermittent) reinforcement
reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement.
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses.
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed.
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
an event that decreases the behavior it follows
a mental representation of the layout of one's environment. For example, after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it.
learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it.
a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem
a desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake
a desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment
learning by observing others. Also called social learning
the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain's mirroring of another's action may enable imitation and empathy.
positive, constructive, helpful behavior. The opposite of anti-social behavior
Bobo doll guy. Children learn through imitation. Antisocial models have antisocial effects, pro social models have pro social effects.
Conditioned Taste Aversions.
Father of Classical Conditioning. Dogs and their saliva
interested in instrumental learning
Operant Conditioning. Skinner box, positive / negative reinforcement
Reinforcement is more effective than punishment.
Behaviorist. Non-reinforcement theorist.