Flashcards in Unit 8 Exam Deck (44):
researched human sexuality and mating processes. Created the Kinsey scale, on 1-6 scale of your sexuality.
Best known for creating "Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs" a pyramid of psychological needs ordered based upon their importance.
Contributor to the James-Lange Theory, the idea that physical arousal precedes emotional response.
Proposer of the idea that emotion is broken into two factors, those being physiological arousal and cognitive labels.
Known for work conducted upon the hypothetical non-specific response of an organism to stressors. Do different organisms respond differently to stressors?
tendency for the body to maintain a constant or balanced internal state.
The four primary perspectives to explain motivation are:
Instinct Theory, Drive-Reduction Theory, Arousal Theory, Hierarchy of Motives
complex behaviors that have fixed patterns throughout all members of a species and are not learned,
Human motivation aims to seek optimum and higher levels of arousal
a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need
Hierarchy of Needs
certain physiological and psychological needs have order and more importance with each other.
The respective order is Physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness and love needs, esteem needs, self-actualization needs.
anorexic person is one who is 25 percent underweight, and continues to starve the self because of the feeling that they are "fat"
a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior
the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues
the point at which an individuals "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. when the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight
basal metabolic rate
the body's restoring rate of energy expenditure
an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calories foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise
significant binge-eating episodes, followed by distress, disgust, or guilt, but without the compensatory purging, fasting, or excessive exercise that marks bulimia nervosa
sexual response cycle
the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson - excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.
a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm
sex hormones such as estradiol, scripted in greater amounts by females than by males contributing to female sex characteristics. In nonhuman female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity.
the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty.
an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own sex (homosexual orientation) or the other sex (heterosexual orientation).
a response of the whole organism involving (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors and (3) conscious experience
the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli. (physical before cognitive response)`
the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion (physical and cognitive responses happen at the same time)
the Schachter-Singer Theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label that arousal. (cognitive labelling of physical responses)
a machine commonly used in attempts to detect lies that measures several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion (such as perspiration, and cardiovascular and breathing changes).
the effect of facial expressions on experienced emotions, as when a facial expression of anger or happiness intensifies feelings of anger or happinness
emotional release. The catharsis hypothesis maintains that "releasing" aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges.
feel-good, do-good phenomena
people's tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood
self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life. Used along with measures of objective well-being (for example, physical and economic indicators) to evaluate people's quality of life
our tendency to form judgements (of sounds, of lights, of income) relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience
the perception that we are worse off relative to those with whom we compare ourselves
an interdisciplinary field that integrates behavioral and medical knowledge and applies that knowledge to health and disease
a subfield of psychology that provides psychology's contribution to behavioral medicine.
the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging.
general adaptation syndrome (GAS)
Selye's concept of the body's adaptive response to stress in three phases-alarm, resistance, exhaustion
coronary heart disease
the clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle: the leading cause of death in North America.
Type A (people)
Friedman and Rosenman's term for competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people
Type B (people)
Friedman and Rosenman's term for easy-going relaxed people
literally, "mind-body" illness; any stress related physical illness such as hypertensions and some head aches
the study of how psychological. neural, and endocrine processes together affect the immune system and resulting health