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A.P. Psyche > Unit 8 Exam > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit 8 Exam Deck (44):
1

Alfred Kinsey

researched human sexuality and mating processes. Created the Kinsey scale, on 1-6 scale of your sexuality.

2

Abraham Maslow

Best known for creating "Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs" a pyramid of psychological needs ordered based upon their importance.

3

William James

Contributor to the James-Lange Theory, the idea that physical arousal precedes emotional response.

4

Stanley Schachter

Proposer of the idea that emotion is broken into two factors, those being physiological arousal and cognitive labels.

5

Hans Selye

Known for work conducted upon the hypothetical non-specific response of an organism to stressors. Do different organisms respond differently to stressors?

6

Homeostasis

tendency for the body to maintain a constant or balanced internal state.

7

The four primary perspectives to explain motivation are:

Instinct Theory, Drive-Reduction Theory, Arousal Theory, Hierarchy of Motives

8

Instinct

complex behaviors that have fixed patterns throughout all members of a species and are not learned,

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Arousal Theory

Human motivation aims to seek optimum and higher levels of arousal

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Drive-Reduction Theory

a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need

11

Hierarchy of Needs

certain physiological and psychological needs have order and more importance with each other.
The respective order is Physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness and love needs, esteem needs, self-actualization needs.

12

Anorexia Nervosa

anorexic person is one who is 25 percent underweight, and continues to starve the self because of the feeling that they are "fat"

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incentive

a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior

14

glucose

the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues

15

set point

the point at which an individuals "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. when the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight

16

basal metabolic rate

the body's restoring rate of energy expenditure

17

bulimia nervosa

an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calories foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise

18

binge-eating disorder

significant binge-eating episodes, followed by distress, disgust, or guilt, but without the compensatory purging, fasting, or excessive exercise that marks bulimia nervosa

19

sexual response cycle

the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson - excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.

20

refractory period

a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm

21

estrogens

sex hormones such as estradiol, scripted in greater amounts by females than by males contributing to female sex characteristics. In nonhuman female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity.

22

testosterone

the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty.

23

sexual orientation

an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own sex (homosexual orientation) or the other sex (heterosexual orientation).

24

emotion

a response of the whole organism involving (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors and (3) conscious experience

25

Jame-Lange Theory

the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli. (physical before cognitive response)`

26

Cannon-Bard Theory

the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion (physical and cognitive responses happen at the same time)

27

Two-Facor Theory

the Schachter-Singer Theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label that arousal. (cognitive labelling of physical responses)

28

polygraph

a machine commonly used in attempts to detect lies that measures several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion (such as perspiration, and cardiovascular and breathing changes).

29

facial feedback

the effect of facial expressions on experienced emotions, as when a facial expression of anger or happiness intensifies feelings of anger or happinness

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catharsis

emotional release. The catharsis hypothesis maintains that "releasing" aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges.

31

feel-good, do-good phenomena

people's tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood

32

well-being

self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life. Used along with measures of objective well-being (for example, physical and economic indicators) to evaluate people's quality of life

33

adaptation-level phenomena

our tendency to form judgements (of sounds, of lights, of income) relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience

34

relative deprivation

the perception that we are worse off relative to those with whom we compare ourselves

35

behavioral medicine

an interdisciplinary field that integrates behavioral and medical knowledge and applies that knowledge to health and disease

36

health psychology

a subfield of psychology that provides psychology's contribution to behavioral medicine.

37

stress

the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging.

38

general adaptation syndrome (GAS)

Selye's concept of the body's adaptive response to stress in three phases-alarm, resistance, exhaustion

39

coronary heart disease

the clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle: the leading cause of death in North America.

40

Type A (people)

Friedman and Rosenman's term for competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people

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Type B (people)

Friedman and Rosenman's term for easy-going relaxed people

42

psychophysiological illness

literally, "mind-body" illness; any stress related physical illness such as hypertensions and some head aches

43

psychoneuroimmunology (PNI)

the study of how psychological. neural, and endocrine processes together affect the immune system and resulting health

44

lymphocytes

the two types of white blood cells that are part of the body's immune system: B Lymphocytes form in the bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infections; T lymphocytes form in the thymus and other lymphatic tissue and attack cancer cells, viruses, and foreign substances.