Unit 4 Flashcards Preview

A.P. Psyche > Unit 4 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit 4 Deck (57):
1

sensation

the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment

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perception

the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events

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bottom-up processing

analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brains integration of sensory information

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top-down processing

information processing guided by higher-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations

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selective attention

the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus

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inattentional blindness

failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere

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change blindness

failing to notice changes in the environment

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psychophysics

the study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity, and our psychological experience of them.

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absolute threshold

the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 percent of the time

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signal detection theory

a theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus (signal) amid background stimulation (noise). Assumes there is no single absolute threshold and that detection depends partly on a person's experience, expectations, motivation, and alertness.

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subliminal

below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness

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priming

the activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one's perceptions, memory, or response.

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difference threshold

the minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50 percent of the time. We experience the difference threshold as a just noticeable difference (jnd).

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Weber's Law

the principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant percentage (rather than a constant amount)

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sensory adaptation

diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation

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top down processing

information and perception based off of past experiences and expectations.

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bottom up processing

analysis and perception based off of the sense receptors

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selective attention

pereceptions about objects change from moment to moment (know what the cocktail party effect is)

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inattentional blindness

inability to see an object because our attention is elsewhere

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change blindness

inattentional blindness in which people don't expect a change. when the change happens, they doubt that they perceived a change in the first place

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transduction

in sensation, the transformation of stimulus energy into neural impulses

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vision

phototransduction: converts light energy into neural iompulses that we can understand

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wavelength (hue)

dimension of color dteremined by the wavelength of the light. wavelength is determined by the distance from one peak of a wave to another

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intensity

amount of energy in a light wave determined by the amplitude (the width of the wavelength).

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the lens

transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to focus imagges on the retina

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rods

high sensitivity to light. low sense to color. low sense to detail.

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cones

low sensitivity to liht. high sense to color. high sense to detail

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Bipolar Cells

receive messages from photoreceptors and transmits them to anaglion cells

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Ganglion Cells

transmits messages from bipolar cells to the optuic nerve

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optic nerve

carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain

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blind spot

point where the optic nerve leaves eye because there are no receptor cells located there

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Fovea

central point in the retina around which the eye's cones cluster

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subdivisions of visual processing

color, depth, form, motion

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Young-Helmholtz Trichromatic Theory

retina contains three receptors sensitive to red, blue, and green colors

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Opponent Process Theory

we process four primary colors combined in pairs of red-green, blue-yellow, and black-white

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three sound characteristics

frequency (pitch), intensity (loudness), quality (timbre)

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Place Theory

sound frequencies stimulate the basilar membrane at specific places resulting in perceived sounds

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Frequency Theory

rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense its pitch

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conduction hearing loss

caused by damage to system that conducts sounds waves to the cochlea

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sensorineural hearing loss

hearing loss caused by damage to cochlea's receptor cells or the auditory nerve. aka nerve deafness

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skin senses

pressure, warmth, cold, pain

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5 basic tastes

sweet, salty, umami, sour, bitter

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umami

savory taste (soup stock)

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why does scent trigger memories so fast?

brain region for smell is closely related to the regions associated with memory

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synesthesia

mixing of the scents. (7 looks yellow)

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gestalt grouping principles

proximity, similarity, continuity, closure,connectedness

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binocular cues

retinal disparity, convergence

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retinal disparity

images from two eyes differ. (touching finger tips together in front of your eyes trick)

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convergence

crossing your eyes

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monocular cues

relative size
interposition
relative clairty
texture
relative height
relative motion
linear perspective
light and shadow
motion

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Phi Phenomenon

When lights flash at a certain speed they tend to present illusions of motion. (ex: Christmas lights, neon signs)

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Size Constancy

we perceive forms as distant or close by the size of them

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shape constancy

texture helps us determine shapes better

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Ponzo Illusion

(railroad tracks) converging lines indicate that top line is farther away than bottom line

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Lightness / Color Constancy

Color of an object remains the same under different illuminations. When the context of the color changes, the color appears different

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Perceptual Adaptation

Visual ability to adjust to an artificially displaced visual field. (upside-down glasses)

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Perception is...

Biophsychosocial