Unit 3 Flashcards Preview

A.P. Psyche > Unit 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit 3 Deck (76):
1

neuron

basic building block of the nervous system

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sensory neuron

afferent (input)

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motor neurons

efferent (output)

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interneurons

info between other neurons, ONLY in brain and spinal cord

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dendrite

the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receives messages and conducts impulses toward the cell body

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axon

the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages are sent to other neurons or glands

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myelin sheath

layers of fatty cells that encase the fibers of many neurons in segments / enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses

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action potential

brief electrical charge that travels down an axon

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threshold

minimum stimulation necessary to produce an action potential

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synapse

Junction between the axon terminal of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron

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neurotransmitters

chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons when released by the sending neurons, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether it will generate an action potential

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reuptake

excess neurotransmitters are sucked back up

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nervous system

the network of nerve cells and fibers that transmits nerve impulses between parts of the body

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central nervous system

Brain and Spinal Cord

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peripheral nervous system

the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord

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nerves

a whitish bundle of fibers that transmits impulses of sensation to the brain or spinal cord, and impulses from these to the muscles and organs

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somatic nervous system

voluntary nervous system

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autonomic nervous system

the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs. Mostly involuntary functions

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endorphins

Control Pain and pleasure, released in respond to pain

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sympathetic nervous system

arousal system. (Fear, flight / fight)

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Parasympathetic Nervous system

“calms” nervous system

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reflex

an action that is performed as a response to a stimulus and without conscious thought

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endocrine system

the body’s “slow” chemical communication system a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream

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adrenal glands

releases adrenaline (epinephrine)

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pituitary gland

“Master gland” in the brain - influences other glands

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behavior genetics

study of influence genetics and environment has on behavior

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chromosomes

a threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying information in the form of genes

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genome

set of genes that is distinct for each organism

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molecular genetics

the branch of genetics concerned with the structure and activity of genetic material ar the molecular level

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evolutionary psychology

psychology philosophy that relies on evolution for answers in psychology

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natural selection

survival of the fittest and most adapted

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EEG

amplified recording of electrical brain activity waves

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CT (CAT)

series of photographs (slices) combined

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PET

detects where radioactive glucose forms when brain is performing tasks

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MRI

shows brain anatomy, uses radio waves and magnetic fields to form computer generated images

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Lesion

tissue destruction

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Brainstem

oldest part of the brain - responsible for automatic functions

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medulla

controls heartbeat and breathing

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Reticular Formation

controls arousal

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Thalamus

sensory switchboard. receives info from the senses and transmits them to the medulla and cerebellum

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cerebellum

(little brain) coordinates movement and balance

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limbic system

emotions and drives

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amygdala

linked to emotions

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hypothalamus

body maintenance (eating, drinking, and body temperature) and linked to emotions and rewards

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cerebral cortex

thin surface of interconnected neural cells; body’s ultimate control and information - processing center

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glial cells

cells in nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons

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frontal lobes

front part of the cerebral cortex, involved in speaking, muscle movements, and making plans and judgements

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parietal lobes

part of the cerebral cortex that is on the top and toward the back. receives sensory input for touch and body position

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occipital lobes

back part of the cerebral cortex. receives information from the visual fields

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temporal lobes

sides of the cerebral cortex. receives information from opposite ears

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motor cortex

area toward the back of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements

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sensory cortex

area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations

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association areas

areas of the cerebral cortex that are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking

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aphasia

impairment of language, usually due to damage to Broca’s area or Wernicke’s area.

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Broca’s area

controls language expression, speaking

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Wernicke’s area

controls language reception, understanding

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Corpus Callosum

connects the two brain hemispheres and carries messages between them

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split brain

a conditions resulting from surgery that isolates the brain’s two hemispheres by cutting the corpus callosum connecting them

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plasticity

the brain’s ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience

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neurogenesis

the formation of new neurons

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consciousness

our awareness of ourselves and our environment

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cognitive neuroscience

the study of the brain activity linked with cognition

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dual processing

information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracts.

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GABA

most inhibitory neurotransmitter. too much glutamate and too little GABA results in epileptic seizures.

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Glutamate

too much glutamate and too little GABA results in epileptic seizures. Major excitatory neurotransmitter

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Seratonin

involved in sleep and depression.

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Noripnephrine

alertness and arousal. adrenaline. "fight or flight" neurotransmitter

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Dopamine

Involved in attention and learning. dopamine imbalance results in schizophrenia / parkinsons disease.

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endorphins

pain / pleasure neuro transmitter. releaesed in response to pain / exertion.

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acetylcholine

involved in learning and muscle contraction and usage. is found in all motor neurons

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agonists...

mimic neurotransmitters

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antagonists.

block neurotransmitters

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the central nervous system is...

the brain and the spine

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older brain structures include...

hypothalamus
pituitary gland
amygdala
hippocampus

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The broca's area...

controls the output of language

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the angular gyrus...

converts visual meaning to pheonetic readin. (reading outloud)