Unit 14 Flashcards Preview

A.P. Psyche > Unit 14 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit 14 Deck (20):
1

attribution theory

the theory that we explain someone’s behavior by crediting either the situation or the person’s disposition

2

fundamental attribution error

the tendency for observers, when analyzing another’s behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition

3

attitude

feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events

4

central route persuasion

attitude change path in which interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts

5

peripheral route persuasion

attitude change path in which people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker’s attractiveness

6

foot-in-the-door phenomena

tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request

7

role

a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave

8

cognitive dissonance theory

the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. For example, when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing out attitudes.

9

conformity

adjusting one’s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.

10

normative social influence

influence resulting from a person’s desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval

11

informational social influence

influence resulting from one’s willingness to accept other’s opinions about reality

12

social facilitation

stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others

13

social loafing

the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable

14

deindividuation

the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity

15

group polarization

the enhancement of a group’s prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group

16

groupthink

the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives

17

culture

the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next

18

norm

an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior. Norms prescribe “proper” behavior

19

personal space

the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies

20

prejudice

an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action.