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Flashcards in Ventilation Deck (11):
1

Successful ventilation tactics begin with the understanding of basic fire dynamics as well as how a ventilation tactic will impact the fire's behavior. Some fire dynamic concepts to understand regarding fire development are: Which item below is incorrect? 2.1

A. Modern content fires are largely comprised of hydrocarbons and synthetics which rapidly consume the available oxygen in the air as they burn at a lesser rate than legacy content fires.
B. Modern content fires quickly become ventilation limited fires due to their higher fuel load.
C. Modern content fires enter an early decay stage due to the limited available oxygen, producing heavy smoke and varying heat conditions.
D. If indications of an early decay stage exist upon arrival, uncontrolled and/or uncoordinated ventilation can have tragic implications for both civilians and operating members.

A is incorrect - burn at a greater rate not lesser
 

Modern content fires are largely comprised of hydrocarbons and synthetics which rapidly consume the available oxygen in the air as they burn at a greater rate than legacy content fires.

2

The traditional fire development curve follows which stages listed below? (more than one correct) 2.1.5

A. Incipient
B. Growth
C. Fully developed
D. Decay

All are Correct

3

The progression of modern content fires differs from the traditional fire development curve as follows: Choose the correct item(s) from below? 2.1.6

A. Incipient stage
B. A slow growth stage that consumes the available oxygen very slowly.
C. Since modern content fires slowly consume the available oxygen within the fire area, they enter into a later oxygen limited decay stage when compared to legacy fires and will remain in the decay stage if no additional oxygen is added to the fire area.

A. Incipient stage
-------------------------------------------------------
B. Rapid not slow and quickly not slowly
A rapid Growth stage that consumes the available oxygen very quickly.
C. rapidly not slowly and earlier not later
Since modern content fires rapidly consume the available oxygen within the fire area, they enter into an earlier oxygen limited Decay stage when compared to legacy fires, and will remain in the Decay stage if no additional oxygen is added to the fire area.

4

Over the past years, the fire service has experienced a series of profound changes that collectively create a fireground of increased danger. In addition to understanding the changes in fire dynamics, our ventilation tactics have also been affected by the following: Choose the item that is not stated in this section of the Ventilation bulletin? sect 3

A. Energy efficient building construction
B. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
C. Four firefighter engine companies
D. Hydraulic forcible entry tools
E. Thermal Imaging Cameras (TIC)

C. Four firefighter engine companies

5

On each response, officers and firefighters must conduct an initial size-up which includes the type of building, occupancy, and conditions on arrival. Part of this initial size-up includes a ventilation profile of the fire conditions. This ventilation profile should note: Choose the incorrect item from below? 4.1

A. The location where smoke or fire is venting from the building.
B. Evaluation of the volume, pressure, and velocity of the smoke venting from the building.
C. Amount of fire venting from the building, including when fire or smoke is not venting out open windows.
D. Fire and smoke should be venting outwards and upwards. If the smoke and fire are venting downward, horizontally or pulsing from an opening in the building, this indicates the fire conditions may be wind impacted.
E. Any change to the fire conditions as the incident progresses or as the result of ventilation tactics performed by members, must be communicated to the IC who will decide which officers should be notified.

E is incorrect - Ladder Company Officer inside the fire area to be vented and the IC not just IC
 

Any change to the fire conditions as the incident progresses or as the result of ventilation tactics performed by members, must be communicated to the Ladder Company Officer inside the fire area to be vented and the IC.

6

All interior and exterior horizontal ventilation tactics must be controlled, communicated, coordinated and approved by the Ladder Company Officer inside the fire area to be vented. Before ordering any horizontal ventilation, this Officer must evaluate the impact that this tactic will have on interior conditions. The Ladder Company Officer inside the fire area shall: Choose the incorrect item from below? 8.1

A. Ensure door control at the fire area entrance. Maintain situational awareness by monitoring handie-talkie transmissions.
B. Evaluate information from members operating on the exterior. (Such as life hazards, ventilation profile, bars on windows). Evaluate wind conditions that could impact interior fire conditions.
C. Communicate the location of the fire, fire conditions or difficulty finding the fire to the Engine Officer and IC.
D. Have the Engine Officer determine the location of the hoseline and any delays or difficulties with the stretch.
E. Coordinate search operations with the advance of the hoseline.

D is incorrect - Ladder officer not engine officer

7

All horizontal ventilation tactics performed from the exterior must be controlled, communicated, and coordinated by the Ladder Company Officer operating inside the fire area to be vented. Members operating on the exterior shall perform all of the following tasks below except one? 8.2.1

A. While getting into their operating position conduct a size-up and communicate findings to the Ladder Company Officer (such as life hazard, ventilation profile, bars onwindows, wind conditions).
B. Monitor handie-talkie transmissions to maintain situational awareness.
C. Notify the Ladder Company Officer when they are in position to ventilate as directed. This can either be Ventilation for Search or Ventilation for Extinguishment.
D. Communicate to the Incident Commander any change to the ventilation profile caused by ventilation tactics.

D is incorrect - Ladder Company Officer not IC

8

Initial vertical ventilation tactics at a 4 story Old Law Tenement with a fire in one of the apartments on the 4th floor must be communicated to and coordinated by the Ladder Company Officer operating inside the fire area to be vented. The Ladder Company Officer inside the fire area shall, establish door control of the fire area and order initial vertical ventilation once door control is assured. Members performing vertical ventilation shall: Choose the most correct answer? 10.2.1

1. Conduct an initial size-up of the incident, including a ventilation profile and monitoring of handie-talkie transmissions to improve situational awareness.
2. Upon arrival on the roof, conduct a size-up of the roof for available vertical ventilation points including a visual survey of the exterior of the building. Look for any life hazard and reassess the ventilation profile of the fire conditions.
3. Communicate findings to the Ladder Company Officer (such as life hazards, fire and smoke conditions).
4. No vertical ventilation shall be performed unless the roof firefighter directly communicates with and receives approval from the Ladder Company Officer, regardless radio transmissions that a charged hoseline is advancing into the fire apartment.

A. 1, 2, 3 B. 2 and 3 C. All D. None

C. All are correct

Initial vertical ventilation is the venting of bulkheads, scuttles or skylights over stairwells and hallways.
Members performing vertical ventilation shall:
 Conduct an initial size-up of the incident, including a ventilation profile and monitoring of handie-talkie transmissions to improve situational awareness.
 Upon arrival on the roof, conduct a size-up of the roof for available vertical ventilation points including a visual survey of the exterior of the building. Look for any life hazard and reassess the ventilation profile of the fire conditions.
 Communicate findings to the Ladder Company Officer (such as life hazards, fire and smoke conditions).
 No vertical ventilation shall be performed unless the roof firefighter directly communicates with and receives approval from the Ladder Company Officer.
Note: The roof firefighter may perform vertical ventilation without direct communication upon hearing radio transmissions that the interior team has door control on the fire floor, or a charged hoseline is advancing into the fire apartment.
 After initial vertical ventilation is completed, perform additional venting as needed dependent upon fire conditions.
 Any change in fire conditions caused by vertical ventilation tactics must be communicated to the Ladder Company Officer and the IC.
Note: These operational responsibilities regarding vertical ventilation are addressed in the applicable Firefighting Procedures volumes/books.

9

A member from Ladder 126 is on the exterior waiting to perform horizontal ventilation for extinguishment of the immediate fire area, listening for the following transmissions form the Engine Company Officer.

Engine offcier to Engine Chauffuer to start water: E303 to E303 chauffeue, start water
Engine officer to IC: E303 to Battalion 51, we are knocking down visible fire

The two transmissions above are an indication to the exterior member to prepare to conduct ventilation for extinguishment. Please choose an incorrect tactic for the L126 member performing ventilation for extinguishment after these two transmissions from the Engine Officer in 303? 11.4

A. Before venting the window(s) the member must communicate with and receive approval from the Ladder Company Officer inside the fire area to be vented. "L126 OV to L126, ready to vent" "L126 to L126 OV, vent the windows"
B. The approval to perform this horizontal ventilation for extinguishment tactic applies to the window(s) throughout the fire building.
C. Any additional horizontal ventilation tactics must be communicated with and coordinated by the Ladder Company Officer operating in that area prior to performing such ventilation.

B is incorrect - in the immediate fire area not throughout the fire building.

The approval to perform this horizontal Ventilation for Extinguishment tactic only applies to the window(s) in the immediate fire area and only for the member venting the immediate fire area. Any additional horizontal ventilation tactics must be communicated with and coordinated by the Ladder Company Officer operating in that area prior to performing such ventilation. This communication and coordination with interior operations will lessen the likelihood of any negative impact on interior fire conditions.

10

When a fire progresses past the _______ stage, the fire area is considered an IDLH atmosphere under the progression of the modern content fire? 12.2

A. Early decay stage
B. Incipient stage
C. Ventilation limited stage
D. 2nd decay stage

B. Incipient stage

When a fire progresses past the incipient stage, the fire area is considered an IDLH atmosphere. Every member entering the IDLH atmosphere must be equipped with personal protective equipment and a self-contained breathing apparatus. No member shall enter, leave or operate in an IDLH atmosphere unless the member teams-up with at least one other member and remains within visual or voice contact with that member. Each member of the search team shall know the company identity and assigned position of the other members of the search team. Handie-talkies or other electronic communication devices are not acceptable to replace visual or voice contact. At least one of the members must be able to contact a handie-talkie equipped member of the safety team outside of the IDLH atmosphere.

11

The member(s) performing Ventilation for Search, shall comply with the following: 12.6

A. The Ladder Company Officer shall be notified when a search team enters from the exterior to conduct a search for a known life hazard or when they are entering to conduct standard search procedures.
B. Once a decision has been made and approval has been granted to enter, the member should clear out the window for access and be cognizant that a new flow path has been created.
C. After venting and entering, the priority action for the member is to isolate the area by closing a door before conducting the search (VEIS).
D. Search the room and locate any victim. If a victim is found immediately transmit radio code 10-45, include your location and planned exit route.
E. If a victim is found prior to isolating the room, the member shall proceed with the rescue effort and isolate the room after removal of the vicitm.

E is incorrect - isolate the room then remove vicitim

If a victim is found prior to isolating the room, the member shall isolate the room and proceed with the rescue effort.