1.1 PHYSIOLOGY - Cellular Physio Flashcards Preview

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Define physiology.

Explains the physical and chemical factors that are responsible for the origin, development, and progression of life.

1

Ability to maintain stable internal environment.

Homeostasis

2

Arterial O2 partial pressure

100 mmhg

3

Arterial CO2 partial pressure

40mmhg

4

Typical GFR

125ml/min

5

Typical value of setum Ca2+

2.4 meq/L

6

Which is more common? Negative or positive feedback control?

Negative

7

2 parts of the cell cycle

Interphase and mitosis

8

Parts of interphase

G1
DNA synthesis
G2

9

Mitosis typically lasts for

30 mins

10

Parts of mitosis

Prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

Mnemonic PPMAT

11

Name which part of mitosis is described.

Condensation of chromosomes and formation of mitotic spindle

Prophase

12

What happens in prometaphase?

Aster fragments the nuclear envelope and attaches to the centromere
Sister chromatids pulled towards opposite poles

13

What happens in metaphase?

Two asters are pushed further apart
Chromatids line up to form the equatorial plane

14

What happens in anaphase?

Chromatids are pulled apart at the centromere tords opposite poles

15

What happens in telophase?

New nuclear membrane develops, mitotic spindle dissolute, cell pinches into two

16

Cell classification according to membrane bound organelles

Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

17

Cell classification according to the ability to reproduce

Labile, Quiescent/Stable, Permanent/Non-dividing

19

Examples of labile cells

Hematopoeitic cells, skin (spontaneous production)

20

Example of quiescent cells

Intestine, liver cells (do not reproduce but can if prompted)

20

Substance that makes up the cell

Protoplasm

21

Examples of permament or non-dividing cells

Neuron, skeletal, cardiac muscle (do not reproduce)

22

Water is not present in adipose tissue. True or false.

True

23

Composition of the protoplasm

Water 70-80%
Proteins 10-20%
Lipids 2%
Ions
Carbohydrates

24

Almost all nucleated cells in the body contain the SAME set of chromosomes and DNA except

Lymphocytes which undergo genetic rearrangement

25

Powerhouse of the cell
Forms ATP

Mitochondria

26

Parts of the mitichondria

Outer membrane
Intermembranous space
Inner membrane
Mitochondrial matrix

27

Organelle that contains its own DNA

Mitochondria

28

Start codon

AUG

29

Other name for smooth ER

Agranular ER

30

Genetic material from the mitochondria is purely

Maternally-derived

31

SERs are abundant in which organs?

Liver, kidney cells, testes, ovaries, adrenal cortex

32

Function of the SER

Mr clean of the cell (smooth, panlaba, mataba)
Involved in DETOXIFICATION
Synthesis of lipids and contains glycogenolytic enzymes

33

Other name for Rough ER

Granular ER

34

Function of the RER

Protein factory of the cell
RER contains ribosomes

35

RERs are abundant in which organs

Liver, neurons, pancreas, thyroid

36

2 types of ribosomes

RER vs free floating

37

Ribosomes bound to the RER are found in the

Cell membrane
Lysosomes
Any proteins secreted out of the cell (hormones, neurotransmitters)

38

Free floating ribosomes are found in the

Cytoplasm and mitochondria

39

The SER in skeletal muscles and the RER in the neuron are called?

Sarcoplasmic reticulum/Nissl substance

40

Packaging department of the cell

Golgi apparatus

41

Functions of the Golgi apparatus

Packaging
Molecular tagging
Synthesis of hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate

42

Structure of the Golgi apparatus

4 or more stacked layers of thin, flat enclosed vesicles lying near one side of the nucleus

43

What is the only protein modified in the RER and not in the golgi apparatus?

Collagen

44

Protein enters and exits which sides of the Golgi apparatus

Protein enters the Covex (cis) side and exits on the concave (trans) side

45

Secretory vesicles or granules are formed from the

ER-Golgi system

46

Inactivated proteins

Proenzymes
(Contained in secretory vesicles or granules)

47

Lysosomes come from the

Golgi apparatus

48

Ribosomal subunits in prokaryotes vs eukaryotes

Prokaryotes: 30s and 50s (70s)
Eukaryotes: 40s and 60s (80s)

49

Suicide enzymes in the lysosomes

Hydrolases (40)

50

Functions of the lysosome

warfreak guy of the cell
Digests damaged cellular structures, food particles ingested by the cell and foreign bodies
Autolysis

51

Lysosomes are involved in which physiologic scenarios?

Regression of tissues (uterus after pregnancy, skeletal muscles follwoing inactivity, mammary glands after lactation)

Autolysis of cells (apoptosis and necrosis)

52

Wear and tear pigment that accumulates in lysosomes

Lipofuscin

53

Enzyme in lysosomes that dissolve bacterial membranes

Lysozyme

54

Enzyme in lysosomes that bind iron and other substances to prevent bacterial growth

Lysoferritin

55

Enzymes in lysosomes that activates hydrolases and inactivates bacterial metabolic systems

Acid with ph 5.0

56

Functions of peroxisomes

Formed by self-replication or budding from SER
Contains oxidase and catalase
Oxidises many poisons (eg alcohol)

57

Peaceful guy of the cell
Physically similar to lysosomes but with different functions

Peroxisomes

58

Types of filament or tubular structures

Actin and myosin
Microtubules

59

Lysosomes:hydrolases
Peroxisomes:?

Catalases and Oxidases (for detoxification)

60

Kartagener Syndrome

Situs inversus
Bronchiectasis
Infertility

Pathophysio: ciliary diskinesia

61

2 types of cell movement

Amoeboid and ciliary

62

2 types of proteins in the cell

Structural and Globular (Enzymes)

63

Degrades membrane associated proteins, not membrane bound.

Proteosomes

64

Drug of choice for S. aureus nasal carriers

Mupirocin

65

DOC for Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS)

Clinda + Vancomycin

66

GI Hormone that increase during intake of coffee

Gastrin

67

Characterised by an episode of dramatic bradycardia following manipulation of extra-ocular muscles or dramatically raised intraocular pressure

Oculocardiac reflex

68

Other name for the oculocardiac reflex

Aschner phenomenon

69

% mass regeneration of the liver in 2-3 mos when removed

70%

70

DNA contains how many base pairs and genes?

3 billion base pairs and 200,000 genes

71

A chromosome is made up of

DNA + histone

72

Number of chromosome pairs in humans

23

73

Charges of DNA and Histone

DNA (-) charge
Histone (+) charge

74

Basic proteins of histones

Lysine and Arginine

75

The ETC in the mitochondria is found in the

Inner Mitochondrial Matrix

76

Number of complexes in the electron transport chain

I, II, III, IV

77

Complex V of the ETC

ATP synthase complex

78

In the ETC, oxygen is the final acceptor found in which complex?

Complex IV

79

MOA of Cyanide

ETC inhibitor (inhibits complex IV) - no generation of ATP

80

Hexokinase is created in the

Free floating ribosomes (glycolysis- cytoplasm)

81

Important molecular tag that tells the protein to go to the lysosome.

Mannose-6-phosphate

82

TB secretes ____ to prevent fusion of the lysosome and bacteria.

Sulfatides

83

Macrophages that fail to fuse with the TB bacteria are called

Langhan's giant cell

84

2 Faces of the Golgi apparatus

Cis (convex) and Trans (concave)

85

Types of RNA

mRNA - massive
rRNA - rampant
tRNA - tiny

86

Nucleus without a nucleolus

Orphan annie

87

Why is the mitochondrial DNA only maternally derived?

Mitochondria of sperm dissociates during fertilization and what is left is the mitochondrial dna of the egg.

88

AUG codes for

methionine

89

Evolutionary explanation for the mitochondria

Anaerobic cell swallowing an aerobic cell (symbiosis)

90

Site of transcription and processing of rRNA

Nucleolus

91

The only substance modified in the RER and not the golgi appparatus

Collagen

92

Lysosomes and Peroxisomes come from which organelles?

Lysosome: Golgi
Peroxisome: SER

93

Wear and tear pigment that accumulates in the lysosomes

Lipofuscin

94

Cell filaments

Actin/Microfilaments
Intermediate filaments
Microtubules

95

Microtubules are from

Tubulin Dimers

96

Structures that are made up of Actin/Microfilaments

Microvilli, locomotion of macrophages, muscles, zonula adherens, zonula occludens

97

Structures that are made up of Intermediate filaments

keratin, neurofilaments, desmosomes, hemidesmosomes

98

2 Motor proteins found in microtubules

Kinesin and Dynein

99

Structures that are made up of microtubules

Flagella, Cilia, Centrioles, Mitotic spindle, intracellular vesicles

100

Disease with dynein missing in cilia and flagella

Kartagener Syndrome

101

Pathophysio of situs inversus in Kartagener's

Defective primary cilia

102

Locomotion of cells

Ameboid movement, Ciliary movement, Flagellar movement

103

Cilia is found in which body structures

Fallopian tubes
Respiratory epithelium

104

Ameboid movement is exhibited by which cells

WBC, fibroblasts, germinal cells of the skin, fertilized embryo
In response to chemotactic substance

105

4 Junctional Complexes

Macula adherens (desmosomes)
Zonula adherens (fascia adherens)
Zonula occludens (tight junctions)
Gap junctions

106

Structure, function and site of desmosomes

Structure: disk-shaped
Fxn: For firm intercellular adhesions
Sites: Epithelium "waterproofing"

107

Structure, function and site of fascia adherens

Ring-shaped
Increases surface area for contact
Sites: Intercalated discs of cardiac muscles

108

2 types of tight junctions

Leaky and tight

109

Structure, function and site of tight junctions

Reticular pattern
Divides cell into apical and basolateral side
Leaky: PCT, Jejunum
Tight: CD, terminal colon, BBB

110

Function and site of gap junctions

For intercellular communication
Cardiac and unitary smooth muscle

111

What is the functional unit of the gap junction?

Connexon

112

What do you call the movement of substances through the apical and basolateral side?

Transcellular transport

113

What do you call the movement of substances between cells through tight junctions?

Paracellular transport

114

The cell membrane divides the body into what compartments?

ECF and ICF Compartment

115

Majority of the cell membrane are made up of

Proteins (55%)

116

2 types of cell membrane proteins

Integral Proteins and Peripheral proteins

117

Components of the cell membrane

Proteins (55%)
Phospholipids (25%)
Cholesterol (13%)
Other lipids (4%) Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)
Carbs (3%)

118

The phospholipid bilayer is divided into

1. Outer leaflet
2. Inner leaflet

119

What lipids are found in the outer and inner leaflet respectively?

Outer: Phosphatidylcholine, Sphingomyelin, Phosphatidylethanolamine

Inner: Phosphatidylinositol, Phosphatidylserine

120

Component of the cell membrane that mainly determines membrane fluidity and permeability to water soluble structures. (Most important component)

Cholesterol

121

Integral proteins vs. Peripheral

type of attachment and interaction

Integral: Tight attachments and Hydrophobic interactions

Peripheral: Loose and Electrostatic interactions

122

Which disease involves a mutation in the gene of Chromosome 7 that encodes for an ABC transporter called CFTR?

Cystic Fibrosis

123

2 types of endocytosis

Pinocytosis and Phagocytosis

124

Which type of endocytosis is used in proteins? For bacteria?

Pinocytosis: Proteins
Phagocytosis: Bacteria

125

Exocytosis is mediated by

SNARE Proteins

126

Endocytosis is mediated by

Clathrin

127

What is the 60-40-20 rule?

TBW 60% of Body weight
ICF 40%
ECF 20%

128

ECF is further subdivided into?

ECF 20%
Plasma 5%
Interstitial fluid 15%
Transcellular fluid 1L

129

Predominant Cation and Anion in the ECF and ICF

ECF: Na+, Cl-
ICF: K+, Ph-

130

Fluid intake on a normal day (ml/day)

2100 ml/day

131

Water Intake from metabolism (ml/day)

200

132

Total water intake (ml/day)

2300

133

Insensible losses from the skin/lungs (ml/day)

350 ml

134

Output from sweat and feces (ml/day)

100

135

Urine output (ml/day)

1400

136

Insensible loss from the skin during prolonged heavy exercise (ml/day)

350

137

Insensible water loss from the lungs during prolonged heavy exercise (ml/day)

650

138

Water loss from sweat during prolonged heavy exercise (ml/day)

5000

139

Water loss from feces during prolonged heavy exercise (ml/day)

100

140

Water loss from urine during prolonged heavy exercise (ml/day)

500

141

What is the principle of MACROSCOPIC ELECTRONEUTRALITY?

In each compartment, the total number of cations should equal the total number of anions.

142

What are the indicator molecules for TBW?

Deuterium oxide, Antipyrine

143

What are the indicator molecules for ECF?

Inulin, Mannitol

145

What is the indicator molecule for Plasma?

124 I-labeled Albumin

146

Osmolality vs Osmolarity

Osmolality = osmoles/kg of water
Osmolarity = osmoles/liter of water (varies with temp)

147

Formula of osmolarity

Concentration x Number of dissociable particles

148

Estimate of plasma osmolarity can be obtained using which solutes

Na, glucose, urea

149

Formula for Plasma Osmolarity

2 x Plasma Na + (glucose/18) + (BUN/2.8)

150

Osmolar Gap

Measured osmolarity - Estimated osmolarity

151

Osmolar gap increases in

Alcohol intoxication and ethylene glycol poisoning (more solutes included)

152

Define osmosis

Movement of water from area of low concentration to high concentration across a semi-permeable membrane

153

Osmotic pressure is dependent on the

Number of molecules

154

Example of IMPERMEANT solute

Glucose (Effective Osmole)

155

Example of PERMEANT solute

Urea (Ineffective osmole)

156

Effective osmole used in the treatment of brain edema

Mannitol

157

Osmotic pressure from large molecules (proteins)

Oncotic pressure

158

Weight of the volume of a solution divided by weight of equal volume of distilled (pure) water

Specific gravity

159

Define Osmotic Coefficient/Reflection Coefficient

Number between one and zero that describes the ease by which a solute permeates a membrane

RC=1 no solute penetration
RC between 1-0 some penetration
RC = zero complete penetration

160

3 functions of the Na K ATPase Pump

1. prevents cellular swelling
2. contributes to RMP (-4mV)
3. Helps secondary transport

161

What are the characteristics of active transport?

1. Saturation: Tm occurs once all transporters are used
2. Stereospecificty: recognizes D or L forms
3. Competition: chemically-related solutes may compete.

162

Which is faster: simple or facilitated diffusion?

At low solute concentration: Facilitate > S
At high solute conc: Simple > F

"Usain bolt and ferrari"
"Usain bolt and speed limit"

163

Give examples of the transport mechanism mentioned below:

Simple Diffusion

Oxygen, Nitrogen, CO2, Alcohol, Lipid hormones, Anesthetic drugs

164

Give examples of the transport mechanism mentioned below:

Facilitated Diffusion

D-glucose transport to muscles and adipose tissues; Amino acid transport

165

Give examples of the transport mechanism mentioned below:

Primary Active Transport

Na-K-ATPase Pump
Ca-ATPase pump
H-K-ATPase Pump (Proton Pump) parietal cells
H-ATPase pump in intercalated cells (kidneys), multi-drug resistance transporters

166

Give examples of the transport mechanism mentioned below:

Secondary Active Transport

SGLT 1 in the Small Intestine
SGLT 2 in the PCT
NaK2Cl Ascending tubule
Na Ca exchange in all cells
Na H Change in PCT

167

Ca-ATPase pump in the cell membrane

PMCA

168

Ca-ATPase pump in the sarcoplasmic reticulum and endoplasmic reticulum

SERCA

169

Functions of the Na-K-ATPase pump

Prevents cellular swelling, contributes to RMP

170

Functional subunit by Na-K-ATPase pump inhibited by cardiac glycosides

Alpha subunit

171

In all epithelial cells, Na-K ATPase is found in the basolateral side except

Choroid plexus

172

Why do RBCs swell when chilled?

Decrease ATP synthesis --> Dec. Activity of Na-K-ATPase pump