✅1.3 PHYSIOLOGY - Special topics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ✅1.3 PHYSIOLOGY - Special topics Deck (118):
0

Thermoregulatory center

Hypothalamus

1

If detected temperature is less than the set point temp, the hypothalamus will

Initiate heat generating mechanisms

2

Heat generating mechanisms include

Shivering, thyroid hormone (inc in basal metabolism by inc Na K ATPase pum activity), decreased sweating, piloerection, skin vasoconstriction (alpha1), brown fat in babies (beta 3)

3

Heat loss mechanisms

Sweating, piloerction, skin vasodilation, dcreased heat production

4

Role of fat and skin in terms of body tem regulation

Fat-insulator
Skin- radiator (vasoconstriction and dilation of vessels)

5

Most of the body heat is lost through which way? (Order and percentage)

Radiation 60%
Evaporation 20%
Conduction to air
Conduction to objects

6

Interleukins involved in the pathophysiology of fever

IL-1 and IL-6

7

Differentiate heat exhaustion and heat stroke

Heat exhaustion- excessive fainting causing fainting
Heat stroke - high temp causing tissue damage and impaired responses

8

High temp secondary to succinylcholine and halothane

Malignant hyperthermia

9

Antidote for malignant hyperthermia

Dantrolene

10

Pathophysio of malignant hyperthermia

Overstimulation of skeletal muscles

11

Strength per square centimeter of x-sec area for men and women

3-4kg/cm2

12

Sequence of energy systems and onset and duration

Phosphagen energy system - 8-10 seconds
Glycogen lactic acid system - 1.3 -1.6 mins
Aerobic system - unlimited time as long as with energy supply

13

Example of activities that use the phosphagen energy system

100 m dash, jumping, diving

14

Example of activities that use the glycogen lactic acid system

Tennis, soccer

15

Example of activities that use the aerobic system

Long distance jogging

16

In the aerobic system, _____ supplies 50% of the energy requirements after 3-4 hrs

Fat

17

What is the basis for muscle endurance?

Glycogen

18

What is the best diet for muscle glycogen recovery?

High carb diet

19

How long does it take to recover muscle glycogen?

2 days

20

An increase in muscle strength is always due to what?

Increase in muscle size

21

Maximal breathing capacity

150-170L/min

22

Pulmonary ventilation during maximal exercise

100-110L/min

23

Difference between maximal breathing capacity and pulmo ventilation during maximal exercise is used to compensate for:

Exercise at high altitude
Exercise under hot conditions
Abnormalities of the respiratory system

24

Muscle blood flow increases up to how many times during the most strenous exercise?

20x

25

Resting cardiac output

5L/min

26

CO can increase to up to how much during exercise?
Values for athletes and non-athletes

Athletes 30L/min
Non athletes 20L/min

27

At macimal exercise cardiac output is at how many percent of its maximum?

90%

28

At maximal exercise, pulmonary ventilation is at how many percent of its maximum?

65%

29

Heatstroke in exercise happens when temp is

>42C

30

Treatment for heatstroke

Remove clothing, sponge/spray with water, fan, give fluids

31

Sweat glands may acclimatize to hot and humid conditions because of

Aldosterone

32

Effects of substances in athletes

Inconsistent results

33

Effects of substances in athletes

Testosterone

Increases muscle strength and aggresiveness

34

Effects of substances in athletes

Ampetamines and cocaine

Psychological effects only, may cause Vfib

35

Rationale for decreased O2 in high altitude

O2 molecules are farther apart hence decreased oxygenation

36

Most important effect of hypoxia

Decreased mental proficiency

37

Symptoms at 12,000 feet

Drowsiness, lassitude, mental and muscle fatigue, headache, nausea, and euphoria

38

Symptoms at 18,000 feet

Twitchings and seizures

39

Effects at 23,000 feet

Coma and death

40

Mechanisms for acclimatization to low pO2

Increased pulmo ventilation
Polycythemia
Inc diffusing capacity of oxygen
Inc vascularity of the peripheral tissues
Inc ability of cells to use oxygen despite low pO2

41

After a few minutes at high altitude, RR increases by

1.65x

42

After a few DAYS in high altitude, RR increases to

5x

43

Born and raised in a place of high altitude

Natural acclimatization

44

What are the changes seen in NATURAL acclimatization to high altitude?

Decreased body mass
Inc chest size
Larger heart and lungs
Better O2 delivery (inc HgB), better O2 utiliztion

45

What are the manifestations of ACUTE mountain sickness?

Acute pulmonary edema
Acute cerebral edema

46

What are the manifestations of CHRONIC mountain sickness?

Pulmonary vasoconstriction, R- sided heart failure

47

Body in sitting position in an airplane is subject to

Linear acceleration
Centrifugal acceleration

48

Define G-force

A unit of force equal to the force exerted by gravity

49

G force associated with death

20G

Vertebral fracture

50

Where is blood shunted in negative and positive Gs

Positive - to the lower ex
Negative - to the head

51

Positive G force is more dangerous than negative. True or false

True

52

Pilot is pushed against his seat

Pos G

53

g force range associated with blackouts, LOC, and death

+6-10 G

54

Pilot is pushed against his seatbelt

Negative Gs

55

May result in red out of the eyes and psychotic disturbances

Neg G

56

What is terminal velocity?

Constant speed that a freely falling object eventually reaches when the resistance of the medium through which it is falling prevents further acceleration

57

When using a parachute, opening shock load of ______lb may be felt

1200 lb

58

A skydiver would reach terminal velocity in _________ with a speed of ____________

12 seconds
175 feet per second

59

A parachute reduces the speed of a skydiver to what fraction of terminal velocity

1/9th

60

How to fall when using a parachute

Fall to the ground with knees bent and muscles taut to prevent fractures

61

Currently how many percent oxygen is used in a sealed aircraft and at what pressure?

20% oxygen at 760mmHg

62

This occurs in chronic weightlessness

Deconditioning

63

To keep the lungs from collapsing due to high water pressure, air used by divers are given in _____ pressure

High

64

High pressure air given to divers may lead to

Nitrogen, CO2 and Oxygen toxicity

65

High nitrogen pressure effects at different levels

120 ft - joviality

At 200-250 feet - drowsiness

Beyond 250 feet - "raptures of the depths" (alters ionic conductance in brain cells)

66

Breathing oxygen at ___________ pressure will cause sudden BRAIN SEIZURES followed by COMA.

4atm (PO2 = 3040mmHg)

67

Oxygen toxicity is due to

Oxygen free radicals (O2- and H2O2)

68

Happens only when diving apparatus has a malfunction

High CO2 pressure

69

Acid base disorder in high altitudes

Respiratory alkalosis

70

Pathophsyiology in decompression sickness

Sudden ascent leading to formation of NITROGEN BUBBLES ----> blocks in blood vessels

71

Manifestations of decompression sickness

Pains in the joints and muscles

Bends

72

Manifestations of decompression sickness

Dyspnea

Chokes

73

Chronic decompression sickness

Caisson's disease

74

Treatment for decompression sickness

Us navy decompression tables
Tank decompression
Use helium in very deep dives (>250 feet)

75

Effects of substances in athletes

Inconsistent results

76

Effects of substances in athletes

Testosterone

Increases muscle strength and aggresiveness

77

Effects of substances in athletes

Ampetamines and cocaine

Psychological effects only, may cause Vfib

78

Rationale for decreased O2 in high altitude

O2 molecules are farther apart hence decreased oxygenation

79

Most important effect of hypoxia

Decreased mental proficiency

80

Symptoms at 12,000 feet

Drowsiness, lassitude, mental and muscle fatigue, headache, nausea, and euphoria

81

Symptoms at 18,000 feet

Twitchings and seizures

82

Effects at 23,000 feet

Coma and death

83

Mechanisms for acclimatization to low pO2

Increased pulmo ventilation
Polycythemia
Inc diffusing capacity of oxygen
Inc vascularity of the peripheral tissues
Inc ability of cells to use oxygen despite low pO2

84

After a few minutes at high altitude, RR increases by

1.65x

85

After a few DAYS in high altitude, RR increases to

5x

86

Born and raised in a place of high altitude

Natural acclimatization

87

What are the changes seen in NATURAL acclimatization to high altitude?

Decreased body mass
Inc chest size
Larger heart and lungs
Better O2 delivery (inc HgB), better O2 utiliztion

88

What are the manifestations of ACUTE mountain sickness?

Acute pulmonary edema
Acute cerebral edema

89

What are the manifestations of CHRONIC mountain sickness?

Pulmonary vasoconstriction, R- sided heart failure

90

Body in sitting position in an airplane is subject to

Linear acceleration
Centrifugal acceleration

91

Define G-force

A unit of force equal to the force exerted by gravity

92

G force associated with death

20G

Vertebral fracture

93

Where is blood shunted in negative and positive Gs

Positive - to the lower ex
Negative - to the head

94

Positive G force is more dangerous than negative. True or false

True

95

Pilot is pushed against his seat

Pos G

96

g force range associated with blackouts, LOC, and death

+6-10 G

97

Pilot is pushed against his seatbelt

Negative Gs

98

May result in red out of the eyes and psychotic disturbances

Neg G

99

What is terminal velocity?

Constant speed that a freely falling object eventually reaches when the resistance of the medium through which it is falling prevents further acceleration

100

When using a parachute, opening shock load of ______lb may be felt

1200 lb

101

A skydiver would reach terminal velocity in _________ with a speed of ____________

12 seconds
175 feet per second

102

A parachute reduces the speed of a skydiver to what fraction of terminal velocity

1/9th

103

How to fall when using a parachute

Fall to the ground with knees bent and muscles taut to prevent fractures

104

Currently how many percent oxygen is used in a sealed aircraft and at what pressure?

20% oxygen at 760mmHg

105

This occurs in chronic weightlessness

Deconditioning

106

To keep the lungs from collapsing due to high water pressure, air used by divers are given in _____ pressure

High

107

High pressure air given to divers may lead to

Nitrogen, CO2 and Oxygen toxicity

108

High nitrogen pressure effects at different levels

120 ft - joviality

At 200-250 feet - drowsiness

Beyond 250 feet - "raptures of the depths" (alters ionic conductance in brain cells)

109

Breathing oxygen at ___________ pressure will cause sudden BRAIN SEIZURES followed by COMA.

4atm (PO2 = 3040mmHg)

110

Oxygen toxicity is due to

Oxygen free radicals (O2- and H2O2)

111

Happens only when diving apparatus has a malfunction

High CO2 pressure

112

Acid base disorder in high altitudes

Respiratory alkalosis

113

Pathophsyiology in decompression sickness

Sudden ascent leading to formation of NITROGEN BUBBLES ----> blocks in blood vessels

114

Manifestations of decompression sickness

Pains in the joints and muscles

Bends

115

Manifestations of decompression sickness

Dyspnea

Chokes

116

Chronic decompression sickness

Caisson's disease

117

Treatment for decompression sickness

Us navy decompression tables
Tank decompression
Use helium in very deep dives (>250 feet)