⭐️INTERNAL MEDICINE Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ⭐️INTERNAL MEDICINE Deck (27):
0

Formula for BP

BP= CO x TPR

1

Formula for cardiac output

CO = HR x SV

2

Formula for pulse pressure

Systole-diastole

3

Formula for mean arterial pressure

1/3 systole + 2/3 diastole

4

Normal pressure at the large arteries

<120/80

5

Normal pressure at the systemic capillaries

17mmhg

6

Normal pressure at the vena cava

0 mmhg

7

Normal pressure at the pulmonary artery

25/8

8

Normal pressure at the pulmonary capillaries

7 mmhg

9

Physiologic basis of the T wave

Ventricular repolarization

10

Two types of 2nd degree AV block

MOBITZ I- prolongation of PR before dropped QRS
Mobitz II - no prolongation of PR before dropped QRS

Mnemonic: roman numeral I getting bigger and II with equal heights :)

11

Most efficient extractor of oxygen from the blood

Heart

12

Most metabolic organ

Brain

13

An increase in venous return will increase heart rate

Bainbridge reflex

14

An increase in venous return will increase stroke volume

Frank-Starling mechanism

15

AV block that causes fainting due to the initially suppressed state of the Purkinje fibers

Stokes-Adams syndrome

16

Cushing reflex

Hypertension, irregular respirationand bradycardia due to activation of the CNS ischemic response and baroreceptor reflex in patients with increased intracranial pressure.

17

Define. White coat hypertension

3 clinic based blood pressures >140/90
2 non-clinic blood pressure <140/90
Absence of target organ damage

18

Define. orthostatic hypertension

Fall in SBP>20mmhg or dbp >10mmhg in response to change in posture from a supine to an upright position within 3 minutes

19

Define. Resistant hypertension.

Blood pressure persistently >140/90 mmhg despite taking >3 antihypertensive agents, including a diuretic.

20

Define. Chronotropic incompetence.

Failure to appropriately increase heart rate during exercise.
Unable to achieve 85% of predicted maximal heart rate at peak exercise.

21

Chest discomfort associated with physical exertion or stress, Relieved within 5~10 min by rest and/or sublingual nitroglycerin

Stable angina pectoris

22

What is unstable angina?

Angina pectoris with at least one of three features:
1. Occurs with minimal exertion or at rest, usually lasting >10 min

2. Severe and of new onset (within the prior 4-6 weeks)

3. Has a crescendo pattern (i.e., distinctly more severe, prolonged, or frequent than previous)

23

How do you elicit abdominojugular reflux?

Apply pressure on the right upper quadrant for 10 seconds. Positive response: rise of > 3cm in JVP for at least 15 seconds after release of pressure.

24

Holosystolic murmur of tricuspid regurgitation becomes louder during inspiration and diminishes during expiration

Carvallo's sign

25

Murmur of aortic stenosis is transmitted downward to the apex (Confused with the systolic murmur of mitral regurgitation)

Gallavardin effect

26

High-pitched, diastolic, decrescendo blowing murmur along the left sternal border due to the dilation of the pulmonary valve ring

Occurs in mitral valve disease and severe pulmonary hypertension

Graham steel murmur of pulmonary regurgitation