✅1.9 PHYSIOLOGY - GI Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ✅1.9 PHYSIOLOGY - GI Deck (113):
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Basic GI layers

Mucosa
Submucosa
Muscularis
Serosa

1

Location of submucosal plexus

Between submucosa and inner circular muscle

2

Other name for submucosal plexus

Meissner's plexus

3

Function of submucosal plexus is mainly for

Secretion

4

Function of myenteric plexus

Motility

5

Other name for the myenteric plexus

Auerbach's plexus

6

Location of the myenteric plexus

Between inner circular and outer longhitudinal muscle

7

3 parts of the mucosa

Epithelium
Lamina propria
Muscularis mucosa

8

Innervation of the muscularis mucosa (mucosa)

Meissner's plexus

9

Brunner's glands vs peyer's patches

Function, location (gross and layer)

Brunner's - duodenum, HCO3 secretion, submucosa
Peyer's patches - ileum, IgA secretion, lamina propria

10

Which layer is not seen in the esophagus?

Serosa

11

Strongest layer of the esophagus

Submucosa

12

Bolus vs chyme vs feces

Bolus - esophagus and stomach
Chyme- mixed with HCl, SI
Feces - nutrients absorbed, found in the LI

13

Function of CCK

Bile secretion and inhibition of gastric emptying

14

3 incretins

Glucagon
GLP-1
GIP

15

Number one trigger of CCK secretion

Fatty acids

16

CCK is secreted by what cells in the _____

I cells

Duodenum and jejunum

17

Motilin does not have effects on the

Large intestine

18

Stimulus for motilin

Fasting

19

"Janitor" GI hormone

Motilin

20

Motilin is from what cells in the ______

M cells

Duodenum and jejunum

21

Function of motilin

Interdigestive/migrating myoelectric complex

22

GIP is produced from what cells in the _____

K cells , duodenum

23

Function of GIP

Increases insulin secretion

24

3 parts of the mucosa

Epithelium
Lamina propria
Muscularis mucosa

25

2 muscles in the muscularis layer

Inner circular
Outer longhitudinal

26

Other name for serosa

Adventitia or mesothelium

27

Muscular layers in the stomach

Inner oblique
Middle circular
Outer longhitudinal

28

The myenteric plexus is mainly excitatory except for which regions

Pyloric sphincter and ileocecal valve

29

Cell source of CCK

I cells duodenum

30

Cell sources of GIP and GLP-1

GIP- k cells
GLP-1 L cells

31

Main stimulus for CCK

Fatty acids

32

Main stimulus for incretins

Oral glucose

33

Effect of motilkn

Stimulates interdigestive myoelectric complexes

34

Stimulus for motilin

Fasting

35

Effect of CCK

Inc bile
GB contraction
Inhibits gastric emptying time

36

Most potent stimuli for gastrin secretion

Phenylalanine
Tryptophan
Methionine

37

Neurocrine from vagus nerve to G crlls

GRP / Bombesin

38

GI hormones classified as incretins

GLP-1
GIP

39

Candidate GI hormones

Pancreatic polypeptide
Enteroglucagon
GLP-1

40

Function of enteroglucagon

Secreted by intestinal cells in response to hypoglycemia

41

GI paracrines

Somatostatin
Histamine

42

Mnemonic for function of somatostatin

Somato STOP IT

inhibits release of all GI hormones

43

Histamine is secreted by

Mast cells of GI mucosa

44

Function of ACH and norepi in sphincters

ACH relaxes sphincters while Norepi contracts sphincterd

45

Inhibits appetite and is found in the ventromedial nucleus

Satiety center

46

Stimulates appetite and is found at the lateral hypothalamic area

Appetite/hunger center

47

Sends signals to satiety and hunger centers

Arcuate nucleus

48

Releases POMC to decrease appetite

Anorexigenic neurons

49

Releases neuropeptide y to increase appetite

Orexigenic neurons

50

Stimulates anorexigenic neurons and inhibits orexigenic neurons

Leptin, insulin, GLP-1

51

Inhibits anorexigenic neurons

Ghrelin

52

Inhibits ghrelin

Peptide YY

53

Mnemonic for satiety and hunger centers

Ventromedial
VUCHOG
Satiety center

Lateral hypothalamic area
LAMON
Hunger center

54

2 types of GI smooth muscle contractions. Differentiate

Tonic - slow - false action potentials

Phasic- spike pptentials - true potentials

55

Slow waves are generated by the GI pacemaker called

Intertstitial cells of cajal

56

Slowest slow wave frequency is found in the

Stomach

57

Fastest slow wave frequency is found in the

Small intestines

58

Type of GI contraction for mixing and propulsion

Phasic contractions

59

Most common stimulus for GI peristalsis

Distention

60

What is the myenteric reflex?

Muscles upstream contract, muscles downstream exhibit receptive relaxation

61

What is the law of the GUT?

Myenteric reflex +anal direction of peristalsis

62

How long does it take to transfer material from pylorus to ileocecal valve?

From ilececal valve to colon?

3-5 hrs

8-15 hrs

63

Chewing is always voluntary. T or F.

It may be involuntary

64

Other name for amylase

Ptayalin

65

Phases of swallowing

Oral
Pharyngeal
Esophageal

66

Swallowing center

Medulla

67

Esophageal peristaltic contraction

2 phases - primary and secondary

Primary peristalsis propels the food to the stomach while secondary persistalsis is for clearance of remaining food.

68

Receptive relaxation of the orad stomach is mediated by

VIP

Relax pag may VIP

69

Capacity of the stomach

1.5 L

70

____ increases distensibility of orad stomach

CCK

71

Caudad stomach contracts ___x per minute

3-5x

72

Back and forth movement of the SI with no net forward motion for mixing chyme with enzymes

Segmentation contraction

73

Sac like segments due to the segmental contractions in the large intestine

Haustra

74

Function of proximal vs distal colon

Proximal - absorption of water
Distal - storage of feces

75

Urge to defecate is felt once rectum is ___%filled

25%

76

Definition of valsalva maneuver

Expiration on a closed glottis

77

Odor in stool is due to bacteria producing

Indole
Skatole
Mercaptan
Hydrogen sulfide

78

Incomplete vomiting / closed UES

Retching

79

Vomiting is a wave of reverse peristalsis that begins from the

Small intestine

80

GI organ with the most volume of secretion

Small intestines
1800ml

81

Only essential secretion of the stomach

Intrinsic factor

82

Other name for parietal cells

Oxyntic cells

83

Other name for chief cells

Peptic cells

84

Secretes serotonin

Mnemonic

Entrochromaffine cells

Ser pls ENTER

85

Secretes histamine

Enterochromaffin LIKE cells

86

3 substances that stimulate HCL secretion and corresponding receptord

Histamine - H2
Ach -M3
Gastrin -CCK-B

87

Inhibitors of HCL secretion

Low pH (

88

Phases of HCL secretion

Cephalic
Gastric
Intestinal

89

Most common component of bile

Water

90

Active component of bile

Bile salts

91

Primary bile acids

Cholic acid
Chenodeoxycholic acid

92

Secondary bile salts

Deoxycholic acid
Lithocolic acid

93

Bile salts from deoxycholic acid

Glycodeoxycholic acid
Taurodeocycholic acid

94

Bile salts from lithocolic acid

Glycolithocolic acid
Taurolithocolic acid

95

Bile salts are utilized ____x before excreted in the feces

17x

96

How do you absorb glucose and galactose from lumen to intestine

SGLT-1

97

How do you absorb fructose from lumen to intestine

GLUT 5

Mnemonic: 5 letters
FRUIT and LUMEN

98

How do you absorb glucose, galactose and fructose from intestinal cell to the blood?

GLut 2

Two letters
BM - basement membrane

99

Is pepsin essential for protein digestion?

No. Trypsin ("aka nuclear bomb") is the essential one for digestion

100

What is the optimum pH for pancreatic lipase activity?

6.0

101

Bile salts inactivate pancreatic lipase. What coenzyme is secreted to prevent this from happening?

Prolipase---> colipase

102

Only product of TGL metabolism that is not hydrophobic

Glycerol

103

What type of fatty acids go directly to the portal vein instead of lacteals?

Short and medium chain FA

104

Main site for water absorption

Jejunum

105

Primary ion secreted in the intestinal lumen

Cl

106

Needed to absorb calcium

Cholecalciferol
1,25 OH2

107

Needed to absorb iron

Vitamin C

108

Part of the metabolism of these vitamins involve the colonic flora

Vit K, B1, B2, B12

109

Liver models

Classic liver lobule
Liver acinus model

110

Zones of the liver acinus model

Zone 1 periportal
2 midzonal
3 centrilobular

111

Special liver cells for vitamin storage

Ito cells
Space of disse

112

Liver macrophages

Kuppfer cells
Liver sinusoids