✅PHYSIOLOGY - Endocrine Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ✅PHYSIOLOGY - Endocrine Deck (118):
1

Hormones that are derivatives of tyrosine

T3, t4, epinephrine, norepinephrine dopamine

2

What hormone attaches to a cytoplasmic receptor (instead of a nuclear) for transcription?

Cortisol

3

2nd messenger of glucagon

Camp

4

2nd messenger of insulin

Tyrosine kinase

5

Protein complex subunits in GPCR

Alpha (most impt)
Beta
Gamma

6

GTP is stimulated by

Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs)

7

GTP is inhibited by

GTPase accelerating proteins (GAPs)
RGS Proteins (Regulatin of G protein signalling)

8

G-protein with alpha(t) subunit is responsible for

Hyperpolarization of the eye

9

Alpha(t) subunit is also called

Transducin

10

Messengers associated with phospholipase C

DAG
Ip3

11

DAG activates

Protein kinase C

12

cAMP activates

Protein kinase A

13

Examples of water soluble hormones

Insulin
Glucagon
Catecholamines

14

Lipid soluble hormones

Steroids
Calcitriol
Thyroxines
Retinoic acid

15

Other name for IGF-1

Somatomedin

16

EPO uses what 2nd messenger

Tyrosine associated kinase receptors

17

Tyrosine kinase receptors

Growth factors

NGF
EGF
PDGF
IGF-1
Insulin

18

All hypothalamic hormones except _____ use the IP3 DAG mechanism

CRH

19

Transport of steroid hormones

Bound to proteins

20

Active form of steroid hormones

Free unbound form

21

Main site of inactivation of hormones

Liver

22

Main site of excretion of hormones

Liver
Kidneys

23

Hormone receptors are constant. T or F

False

Variable

24

Minimum amount of a hormone to produce an effect

1 picogram per ml

25

Hormone interaction that uses upregulation of receptors in response to another hormone

Permissive effects

26

2 types of synergistic effects

Additive and complementary

27

What type of hormone interaction does NE and E have?

Additive effect

28

3 moments where positive feedback of hormone is seen

LH surge
Oxytocin in delivery
Oxytocin in milk secretion

29

Example of negative feedback that does not use HPA

Insulin

30

The pituitary gland is connected to the _______ of the hypotahalamus via the pituitary stalk

Median eminence

31

Parts of the pituitary gland

Adenohypophysis
Neurohypophysis
Pars intermedia

32

Avascular portion of the pituitary gland

Pars intermedia

33

The anterior pituitary is derived from the

Oral ectoderm or

Rathke's pouch

34

Hormones produced in the neurohypophysis

Vasopressin
Oxytocin

35

The posterior pituitry is derived from the

Neural ectoderm

36

2 types of cells in the anterior pituitary

Basophilic and acidophilic cells

37

Acidophilic cells produce

GH
Prolactin

38

Basophilic cells produce

B FLAT Major

FSH
LH
ACTH
TSH
MSH

39

If the pituitary stalk is damaged, all hormones would decrease except

Prolactin

40

In terms of number, what are the top 2 cells in the anterior pituitary

Somatotropes (40%)
Corticotropes (20%)

41

Hormones derived from POMC

MSH
ACTH

42

Hormone family in the anterior pituitary with the same alpha unit but unique beta subunits

TSH
LH
FSH

43

3 hormone classes

Steroids
Protein
Derivatives of tyrosine

44

Growth hormone is both catabolic and anabolic. T or F

t

45

Other name for growth hormone

Somatotropin

46

Other name for IGF

Somatomedin

47

Growth hormone is released in a ________ fashion

Pulsatile (every 2 hrs)

48

Nocturnal peak of GH

1 hour after stage 3 or 4 sleep

49

4 diabetogenic hormones

Glucagon
GH
Epinephrone
cortisol

50

GH secretion requires normal plasma levels of this hormone.

Thyroid hormones

51

Decreased GH
MCC of dwarfism

Achondroplasia

52

Achondroplasia is a defect in

FGF 3 receptor

53

Inc GH with skeletal deformities

Acromegaly

54

Symmetrical
Inc GH

Gigantism

55

Lactational amenorrhea duration

6mos

56

What is one possible side effect of antipsychotic drugs that involve prolactin?

Amenorrhea
Galactorrhea

57

Prolactin is stimulated mainly by

Pregnancy (estrogen)
Breast feeding

58

Prolactin is inhibited by

Dopamine
Bromocriptine

59

Other names of vasopressin

AFH
AVP(arginine vasopressin)

60

Vasopressin is secreted byvthe

Supraoptic nuclei in the hypothalamus

61

Vasopressin responds to ECF changes detected by osmoreceptors in the

Organum vasculosum

62

Most poteng stimulus for vasopressin release

Increased plasma osmolality

63

Vasopressin acts on what type of receptors in the kidney?

V2 receptors

Causing the insertion of AQP2 in the late distal tubule and CD

64

Peripheral vasoconstriction is mediated by which receptor of ADH

v1

65

Treatment in central diabetes insipidus

DDAVP

66

Treatment of peripheral diabetes insipidus

Thiazide diuretics

67

Treatment for SIADH

Demeclocycline

68

Rapid correction of hyponatremia results in

Central pontine myelenosis

69

Oxytocin is from the

Paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus

70

2 actions of oxytocin

Milk ejection (contraction of myoepithelial cells)
Uterine contraction

71

Only hormones that we can store

Thyroid hormones

72

Thyroid hormones are synthesized by the

Follicular epithelial cells of the thyroid

73

Thyroid gland can produce and store hormones for up to how many mos?

3 mos

74

What thyroid hormone is more active?

T3

75

Percent of T3 and T4 synthesized

T4 93 %
T3 7 %

76

How do thyroid hormones regulate basal metabolic rate?

Increases mitochondria and NaKATPase activity

77

Effect of thyroid hormones that causes fine muscle tremors

Increases muscle vigor

78

Important in regulation of thyroid hormones

Temperature

79

Cold temperature stimulates what thyroid regulation process

TRH secretion

80

Exophthalmos is pathognomonic for which disease

Graves

81

Whole body myxedema is seen in hypo or hyperthyroidism?

Hypo

Hyper- pretibial myxedema

82

RDA of iodine per day

150 ug

83

What is the WOLFF-CHAIKOFF EFFECT?

High levels of iodine inhibiting organification and iodine thyroid hormone synthesis

84

TBG levels in kidney and liver failure

Decreased

85

TBG levels in estrogen or pregnancy

Increased

86

Enzyme that converts T4 to T3

5 iodinase

87

T4 can also be converted to

rT3 (inactive)

88

What is theJod-Basedow phenomenon?

Hyperthyroidism following administration of iodine

89

Where is cortisol produced?

Zona fasciculata

90

Main catecholamine produced in the adrenal medulla

Epi 80%
Norepi 20%

91

Inhibits 11 beta hydroxylase

Metyrapone

92

Inhibits desmolase

Ketoconazole

93

Significance of adrenal androgens in males and females respectively

Inisgnificant
Significant

94

Diabetogenic hormones

GH
Epi
Glucagon
Cortisol

95

Primary adrenal insufficiency

Addison's disease

96

Primary adrenal hyperplasia

Cushing syndrome

97

Treatment for cushing's syndrome

Ketoconazole
Metyrapone

98

11 depxycorticosterone is a _____ hence there is increased BP with accumulation

Weak mineralocorticoid like aldosterone

99

Most abundant cells in the islets of langerhans

Beta cells 60%

100

Name the secretion of each cell:

Beta
Alpha
Delta
f cell /PP cell

Beta - insulin and amylin
Alpha - glucagon
Delta - somatostatin
f cell /PP cell - pancreatic polypeptide

101

Half life of insulin

6 minutes

102

Structure of insulin

A chain and B chain joined by disulfide bonds

103

Effect of insulin on potassium uptake

Inc potassium uptake of the cells

104

Percentage of beta cell lost to manifest with DM type 1

80-90%

105

2nd messenger of insulin

TK

106

Effects if insulin on the brain

None

107

GLUT transporter found in beta cells

GLUT 2

108

Calcium is ___ in bone

Hydroxyapatite

109

Where are PTH receptors located

Osteoblasts

110

What is secreted by osteoblast to inhibit osteoclastic activity in hyperparathyroidism?

Alkaline phosphatase

111

Active vitamin D

1,25 OH2 cholecalciferol

112

PTH is secreted

Chief cells of the parathyroid gland

113

Calcitonin is secreted by

Parafollicular cells (c-cells) of the thyroid gland

114

Stimulus for clacitonin release

High plasma Ca

115

Mnemonic calcitonin

"Calcium in"

116

Net effect of vit d on serum level of Calcium and phosphate

Inc calcium and phosphate

117

Net effect of PTH on serum level of calcium and phosphate

Inc calcium
Dec phosphate

118

Effect of pth on the kidneys

Inc calcium reabsorption in the DCT
Dec phopshate reabsorption in the PCT