✅1.2 PHYSIOLOGY - Neuro Flashcards Preview

ANA, BCHM, PHY > ✅1.2 PHYSIOLOGY - Neuro > Flashcards

Flashcards in ✅1.2 PHYSIOLOGY - Neuro Deck (79):
1

More numerous: glial cells or neurons?

Glial cells

2

Produces CSF

Ependymal Cells

3

Macrophage of the brain

Microglia

4

Regulates ECF ion levels, gives mechanical support forms BBB

Astrocyte

5

Creates myelin in the CNS

Oligodendrocytes (myelinates many cells at a time)

6

Creates myelin in the PNS

Schwann cell (one cell at a time)

7

Brain tumors from non-mature neurons

Neuroblastoma, Retinoblastoma

8

"Receiving" Portion (for NTS) of the Neuron

Dendrites

9

Where Action Potential in a neuron actually starts

Axon Hillock

10

Function of Myelin Sheath

Insulator

11

Space between 2 neurons

Synapse

12

Unmyelinated portion of the Axon

Nodes of Ranvler

13

Branches of the Axons

Neural Fibril

14

Terminal portion of a neural fibril that contains NT-containing vesicles

Axon Terminal/Boutons/End-Feet

15

2 types of axonal transport

Anterograde and Retrograde

16

What do you call the death of the axon distal to the site of injury?

Anterograde/Orthograde/Walllerian Degeneration

17

What do you call the changes to the soma after an axon is transected?

Axonal reaction/Chromatolysis

18

Axonal regeneration occurs better in the CNS or PNS?

PNS

19

Acetylcholine is mainly secreted where?

Nucleus basalis of Meynert

20

Raw materials for synthesis of acetylcholine

Uses Acetyl Coa and Choline
Enzyme: Choline acetyltransferase

21

Raw materials produced in the degradation of acetylcholine

Produces Acetate and choline
Enzyme: Acetylcholinesterase

22

Dopamine is found mainly in the

Substantia Nigra Pars Compacta and ventral tegmental area

23

REM sleep is every

90 mins

24

Neurotransmitter that triggers REM sleep

Ach

25

Dopamine is degraded by

MAO and COMT

26

Norepi and epi are secreted by neurons in the

Locus ceruleus

Mnemonic: iLOCUS NORte

27

Mnemonic phenylalanine derviatives

Pare true live does not exist to me

Phenylalaline
Tyrosine
L-DOPA
Dopamine
Norepi
Epi
Throxine
Melanin

28

Mnemonic tryptophan derivatives

Trip mo siya no?

Tryptophan
Melatonin
Serotonin
Niacin

29

Serotonin is secreted by the

Median raphe of the brainstem

30

Dubbed as the happy hormone

Serotonin

31

Serotonin is converted to ____ in the pineal gland

Melatonin

32

secreted in areas of the brain responsible for long term memory

Nitric oxide

33

Nitric oxide is from what amino acid?

Arginine

34

Histamine is located mainly in the ____ in the CNS

Tuberomamillary nucleus of the hypothalamus

35

GAba comes from

Glutamate

36

Action of GABA a and GABA b?

Gaba A inc chloride influx
Gaba B potassium efflux

37

Inhibitory neurotransmitter usually found in the spinal interneurons

Glycine

38

Typical RMP

-70mV

39

Threshold voltage for depolarization

-40mv

40

Give examples of sodium channel blockers of neurons

Tetradotoxin
Saxitoxin

41

Giv examples of potassiu channel blocker of neurons

Tetraethyl ammonium

42

2 types of refactory periods

Absolute and relative

43

Ionic basis of absolute refractory period

No action potential can occur unless sodium inactivation gates open

44

RRP is due to the

Prolonged opening of K channels

45

When a cell is depolarized slowly such that the threshold potential is passed without firing an action potential

Accommodation

46

Effect of hypokalemia in an excitable cell such as the heart

Hyperpolarization

47

Effect of hyperkalemia in an excitable cell such as the heart

Cell is more depolarizable

48

Synaptic inputs that depolarize the post synaptic cell

Excitatory post synaptic potential

49

Synaptic inputs that hyperpolarizes the post synaptic cell

IPSPs

50

Two or more presynaptic inputs arrive at the postsynaptic cell simultaneously

Spatial summation

Potentials are on the same "space"

51

Two or more presynaptic inputs arrive at postsynaptic cell in rapid succession

Temporal summation

52

Repeated stimulation causes response of postsynaptic cell to be greater than expected

Nerve facilitation

53

Increased release of NT and inc sensitivity to the NT

Long term potentiation

54

Repeated stimulation causes decreased response of postsynaptic cell

Synaptic fatigue

55

Vasomotor center, respiratory DRG, VRG, swallowing, coughing, vomiting centers

Medulla (think of medullary syndromes)

56

Micturition, pneumotaxic and apneustic centers

Pons

57

Memory is accelerated and potentiated by

Rehearsal

58

In memory, hippocampal lesions cause ___ while thalamic lesions cause ___

Hippocampal - anterograde amnesia
Thalamic - retrograde amnesia

59

Major parts of the limbic system

Hypothalamus
Reward and punsihment centers
Hippocampus
Amygdala
Limbic cortex

60

Name the part of the limbic system

Produces mainly oxytocin

Paraventricular nuclei

"Para sa voobs"

61

Name the part of the limbic system

Produces mainly vasopressin

Supraoptic nuclei

62

Name the part of the limbic system

Satiety center

Ventromedial nuclei

"Vutsog"

63

Name the part of the limbic system

Hunger center

Lateral nuclei

"Lamon"

64

Name the part of the limbic system

Sweating/heat release

Anterior hypothalamus

65

Name the part of the limbic system

Shivering, heat conservation

Posterior hypothalamus

66

Name the part of the limbic system

Reward center

Medial forebrain bundle

67

Name the part of the limbic system

Punishment center

Central gray area around aqueduct of sylvius

68

Name the part of the limbic system

Social inhibition

Amygdala

69

Which is more powerful in creating new memories? Reward or fear and punishment?

Fear and punishment

70

Master clock

Suprachiasmatic nucleus

71

Stages of EEG changes in slow wave sleep

Stage N1 - Alpha waves
Stage N2 - Theta waves interrupted by sleep spindles and K complexes
Stage N3 - delta waves interrupted by sleep spindles

72

Waves present in REM

Beta waves

73

Sources of energy of the brain

Glucose and ketone bodies

74

Total csf in the brain

150ml

75

Circumventricular organs (no blood brain barrier)

Some areas of the hypothalamus
Pineal gland
Area postrema

76

Mnemonic for autonomic nervous sytem tracts

PLASMA

Parasympa
Long preganglionic
Ach used
Short postganglionic
Muscarinic receptors
Ach used

77

Synpathetic nervous system with muscrinic receptors are found in the

Piloerector muscle
And some blood vessels

78

Adrenoceptor with IP3 as secondary messenger

Alpha 1

79

Moa of alpha 2 adrenoceptors

INHIBITION OF ADENYLYL CYCLASE, dec CAMP