1.10 PHYSIOLOGY - Motor Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 1.10 PHYSIOLOGY - Motor Deck (73):
0

3 types of muscles

Skeletal
Cardiac
Smooth

1

Other name for unitary smooth muscle

Syncitial smooth muscle
Visceral smooth muscle

2

Smooth muscles with gap junctions

Unitary smooth muscle

3

Smooth muscles with no true Action potential (junctional potential only)

Multi-unit smooth muscle

4

Smooth muscle utilizing slow wave, spike potentials and plataeu potentials

Unitary

5

Rhythmic, intermittent smooth muscle

Phasic smooth muscle

6

Continuously active smooth muscle

Tonic smooth muscle

7

Skeletal muscle more active in the glycolytic pathway

Fast twitch

8

Examples of slow twitch fibers

Soleus, antigravity back muscles

9

Examples of fast twitch muscles

EOMS

10

Covers the muscle fascicle

Perimysium

11

Type of muscles arrange in sarcomeres

Skeletal and cardiac

12

Plasma membrane surrounding the muscle fiber

Sarcolemma

13

Invaginations of the sarcolemma in close proximity to the terminal cisternse of the SR

T tubules

14

Endoplasmic reticulum surrounding myofibril

Sarcoplasmic reticulum

15

Boundary of the sarcomere

Z lines

16

Thick filaments

Myosin

17

Thin filaments

Actin
Tropomyosin
Troponin

18

3 types of troponins

Trop T - attaches troponin complex to tropomyosin
Trop I inhibits actin myosin binding
Trop C -calcium binding protein

19

Tethers myosin to z- lines

Titin - also the largest protein in the human body

20

Stabilizes the sarcolemmma and prevents contraction induced rupture.

Dystrophin

21

Binds actin to z-lines

Actinin, capz protein

22

Binds z lines to sarcolemma

Desmin

23

Acts as a molecular ruler that sets the length of actin during assembly

Nebulin

24

What do you call actin and myosin interaction in the sliding filament model?

Cross bridge formation

25

What does negative pole and positive pole mean?

Negative pole - toward the M-line
positive pole - towards the Z-line

26

Sequesters Ca for storage

Calsequestrin

27

Receptors activated by DHPR receptors

Ryanodine receptors

28

What is the distance achieved in each cross-bridge cycle?

10 nm

29

What is a motor unit?

Consists of a somatic motor neuron plus all muscle fibers it stimulates.

30

Small motor units are recruited first before big motor units

Size principle

31

Multiple fiber summation

Spatial summation

32

Frequency summation

Temporal summation

33

What is the Staircase/Treppe Effect

Each contraction occurs after complete relaxation producing stronger contraction each time.

34

Basis for the Treppe effect

Ca2+ accumulation, pH changes, increased temperature

35

Complete fusion of individual muscle contraction when Ca 2+ is all used up

Tetany

36

Which of the following tetanizes at a lower stimulus frquency? Fast or slow twitch?

Slow-twitch

37

Which if the following has a larger maximal force during tetany?

Fast twitch

38

Active tension reflect what?

Number of cross bridges that cycle

39

Velocity of cross bridging reflects

Speed of cross-bridging cycling

40

Isometric contraction

Length is held constant

41

Load is held constant

Isotonic contraction

42

2 types of isotonic contraction

Concentric contraction (weight up)
Eccentric contraction (lowering weight down)

Remember book diagram

43

Protective mechanism to prevent muscle cell injury or death

Muscle fatigue

44

Relationship of muscle fatigue to glycogen and lactate

Directly prop to lactate and inversely prop to glycogen

45

Relies both on intra and extracellular calcium

Cardiac muscle

46

Why is there no tetany in cardiac muscles?

Due to the long refractory period brought about by phase 2

47

Location of transverse tubules in cardiac muscles

In the Z lines

48

Location of transverse tubules of skeletal muscles

At the ends of the I bands

49

Sarcoplasmic reticulum is more developed im cardiac or skeletal?

Skeletal

50

Are there troponins in smooth muscle?

None

51

Secondary messenger for calcium release in smooth muscles

IP3

52

Trop C equivalent in smooth muscle

Calmodulin

53

Phosphorylates myosin

MLCK

54

Trop I equivalent in smooth muscle

Caldesmon and Calponin

55

Additioj of phosphate means the smooth muscle is active. True or false.

True

56

Enzyme that removes phosphate

MLCP

57

Caldesmon and Calponin are inhibited by

Ca-Calmodulin complex

58

Similar to z discs in smooth muscles

Dense bodies

59

Rudimentary structure in smooth muscles compared to skeletal muscles

SR

60

Rudimentary t tubules

Caveoli

61

Connect dense bodies with cytoskeletal network in smooth muscle

Desmin and vimentin

(Intermediate filaments)

62

Force of contraction in smooth muscles are stronger or weaker than skeletal muscle

Stronger

63

Spinal cord neurons important in control of muscles

Anterior motor neurons
Interneurons
Renshaw cell

64

Anterior motor neuron for extrafusal fibers

Alpha motor neuron

65

Angerior motor neuron for intrafusal fibers

Gamma motor neuron

66

Facilitates lateral inhibition in the control of muscles

Renshaw cell

67

Detects position of body in space

Proprioception

68

2 major proprioceptors

Muscle spindle and golgi tendon

69

Muscle spindles and are arranged in a ________ and detects changes in ___________

Parallel
Muscle length and rate of change of muscle length

70

Golgi tendon and are arranged in a ________ and detects changes in ___________

Series
Muscle tension

71

Functional unit of the cerebellum

Purkinje and deep nuclear cell

72

Which functional unit of the cerebellum is the middle layer and is always inhibitory?

Purkinje