1.7 PHYSIOLOGY -Cardio Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 1.7 PHYSIOLOGY -Cardio Deck (61):
0

Semilunar valves

Aortic and pulmonic

1

Other name right atrial pressure

Central venous pressure

2

2 arteries that carry deoxygenated blood

Pulmonary artery and umbilical artery

3

Area in the human body with 100 percent oxygenation

Pulmonary vein

4

3 shunts present in fetal circulatiom

Ductus venosus
Foramen ovale
Ductus arteriosus

5

4 layers of the artery

Tunica intima, media, externa and serosa

6

Tunica externa + serosa

Tunica adventitia

7

Alpha 1 receptors in arterioles are mainly responsible for

Smooth muscle constriction, vasoconstriction

8

Are varicose veins a risk factor for DVT?

No.

Immobilization

9

Beta 2 receptors are responsible for

Smooth muscle relaxation

10

When arterioles vasoconstrict, what happens to blood flow and TPR?

BF dec
TPR inc

11

When arterioles dilate, what happens to blood flow and TPR?

Inc BF
Dec TPR

12

Where do you usually find alpha 1 receptors?

Skin, splanchnic, renal

13

Where do you usually find beta 2 receptors?

Skeletal muscles

14

Reservoir of blood

Veins

15

Parts before true capillaries

Arteriole-> metarteriole > precapillary sphincters

16

Veins contain which type of receptors?

Alpha 1

17

Percentage of blood to the following organs from the aorta:

Cerebral
Coronary
Renal
GI
Skeletal
Skin

Cerebral 15
Coronary 5
Renal 25
GI 25
Skeletal 25
Skin 5

18

How many percent of blood are in the veins?

64%

19

Formula for compliance

C= V/P

20

The greater the reynold's the number, the greater the probability of

Turbulent blood flow

21

Velocity is highest at the ____ of the blood flow

Center

22

Max heart rate

220-age

23

2 reasons for phase 2

Calcim induced cal release
Ventricular filling

24

Ion that causes depolarization in SA node and skeletal muscles

Calcium

25

The SA node has what receptors?

Beta 1 and muscarinic receptors

26

Most common arrhythmia post MI

Ventricular fibrillation

27

Basis for Vfib

Circus movements

28

Adverse effect of digoxin

Yello vision
Gynecomastia

29

Gynecomastia causing drugs

Some drugs create awesome knockers

Spirinolactone
Digoxin
Cimetidine
Alcohol
Ketoconazole

30

Normal CO

5 liters/ min at rest

31

2 mechanism that match venous return with cardiac output

Frank starling mechanism
Bainbridge reflex

32

Blood pressure at the large arteries

120/80

33

Blood pressure at the capillaries

17 mmHg

34

BP at the vena cava and R atrium

0 mmHg

35

Bp at the pulmo arteries

25/8

36

BP at the capillaries

7 mmHg

37

ECG change associated with hypokalemia

Flat/inverted T waves with U waves

38

ECG change associated with hyperkalemia

Low P waves, tall T waves

39

ECG change in hypocalcemia

Prolonged QT interval

40

ECG changes in hypercalcemia

Shortened QT

41

Region of infarct in STEMI

Transmural

42

Region of infarct affected in NSTEMI

Partial thicknes

43

Layer of the heart affected in NSTEMI

Subendocardial layer

44

Other name for STEMI

Q wave MI

45

Reynold's number for laminar flow

<2000

46

Reynold's number for turbulent flow

>2000

47

Define shear

A strain produced in the structure of a substance produced by pressure when its layers are laterally shifted in relation to each other.

48

Shear is highest in the

Walls of the vessels

49

Shear is lowest in the

Center of the blood vessel

50

Consequence of shear

Decreased blood viscosity

51

Compliance of veins vs arteries

24x higher

52

Compliance of arteries in aging

Decreased

53

Highest arterial blood pressure

Systolic bp

54

Lowest arterial blood pressure

Diastolic bp

55

Pulse pressure

Systolic-diastolic

56

Stroke volume/arterial compliance

Pulse pressure

57

Formula for MAP

2/3diastole + 1/3 systole

58

Synonym for R atrial pressure

CVP

59

Estimates left atrial pressure

Pulmonary wedge capillary pressure

60

Differentiates cardiogenic pulmonary edema vs ARDS

PCWP