✅1.6 PHYSIOLOGY - Hema Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ✅1.6 PHYSIOLOGY - Hema Deck (139):
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3 types of globulins

Alpha
Beta
Gamma

1

Examples of alpha globulins

Proteases, antiproteases, transport proteins

2

Examples of beta globulins

Transferrin and other transport proteins

3

Examples of gamma globulins

Immunoglobulins

4

Process of forming blood cells in the bone marrow

Haemopoeisis

5

Site of blood cell formation beginning 3rd week AOG

Yolk sac/ Aortic Gonad Mesonephros (AGM) Region

6

Site of blood cell formation from the 3rd month AOG to birth

Liver with minor contributions from the spleen, LN

7

Only source of blood cells postnatally

Bone marrow

8

Age group where all bone marrow are active

Birth to puberty

9

Age group where only bone marrow of vertebra, ribs, sternum, skull, and pelvis, proximal epiphyseal region of the humerus are active

Age 20 (remaining bone marrow, fatty, yellow, inactive)

10

Post embryonic extramedullary hematopoeisis in full term infant is always

Abnormal

11

Most abundant of blood cells

RBCs

12

How does RBC act as an acid base buffer?

It contains carbonic anhydrase, an enzyme that catalyzes the reaction between CO2 and water to form carbonic acid or H2CO3

13

The carbonic anydrase buffer system is important because

1. It allows about 70% of CO2 to be transported in blood plasma from tissue cells to the lungs in the form of HCO3

2 Serves as an important buffer in extracellular fluid

14

The normal biconcave disc shape of RBC is due to

Spectrin

15

Composition of hemoglobin

4 polypeptide subunits (2 alpha and 2 beta)

16

Composition of fetal hemoglobin

2 alpha and 2 gamma

17

How many oxygen molecules can 1 hemoglobin molecule bind?

4

18

How many O2 molecules can myoglobin molecules bind?

1

19

Most common hemoglobin in adults

Hemoglobin A

20

Essential metalic component of heme

Iron

21

Total iron in the body

4-5g

22

Vitamin required for the absorption of iron

Vitamin C

23

Iron and vitamin c are absorbed in the

Duodenum

24

#1 storage protein for iron in the liver

ferritin

25

Supplemental storage for iron

Hemosiderin

26

Other name for hemosiderin laden macrophages

Heart failure cells

27

Last nucleated stage of RBC

Orthochromatic erythroblast

28

First non-nucleated RBCs

Reticulocytes

29

Reticulocytes take how many days to mature

1-2 days

30

How many liters of water is absorbed in the large intestine?

1.5 L

31

Substances exclusively absorbed in the ileum

Vit ADEK, IF, B12, Bile salts

32

Substances absorbed in the jejunum

CArbs, fat, CHON, H20

33

Only valid indication for stem cell therapy

Leukemia and lymphoma

34

Main stimulus for EPO production

Hypoxia

35

Effect of EPO will manifest after how many days?

5 days

36

Characteristics of mature RBCs

No nucleus, no mitochondria, no ER

37

Lifespan of adult RBCs

120 days

38

Life span of fetal RBCs

90 days

39

Intravascular destruction of RBCs happen here

Spleen

40

Extravascular destruction of RBC is due to

Macrophages

41

Fate of heme in destroyed RBC

Bilirubin

42

Nutrients essential in DNA synthesis

Folic acid, vit B12

43

Megaloblastic anemia + neural deficits

Vit B12 deficiency

44

Megaloblastic anemia + neural tube disorders

Folic acid deficiency

45

Needed to absorb vitamin B12

Intrinsic factor

46

Granulocytes/PML/Myeloid cells

Basophils, eosinophils, neutrophils

47

Agranulocytes

Monocytes, lymphocytes

48

Site of production of granulocytes and monocytes

Bone marrow

49

Site of production of lymphocytes and plasma cells

LN, spleen, thymus, tonsils, peyer's patches

50

Lifespan of granulocytes

4-8 hrs in blood, 4-5 days in tissues (shortened in infection)

51

Lifespan of monocytes

10-20 hrs in blood
For several months in tissues

52

Lifespan of lymphocytes

Weeks to months

53

Most common WBC

Neutrophils

54

Prominent feature of neutrophils

Highly lobulated nucleus

55

Involved in parasitic infections and allergic reactions

Eosinophils

56

Stains bright red with eosin dye

Eosinophils

57

WBCs with bilobed nucleus

Eosinophils and basophils

58

Least common type of WBC

Basophils

59

Tissue "basophils"

Mast cells

60

Basophils produce

Histamine, heparin, bradykinin, serotonin

61

Largest WBC

Monocytes

62

Monocytes in the tissue are called

Macrophages

63

Prominent feature of monocytes

Eccentrically placed nucleus

64

Platelets are from

Megakaryocytes

65

Life span of platelets

7-10 days

66

2nd most common type WBC

Lymphocytes

67

Cells of adaptive immunity

Lymphocytes

68

Smallest of WBC

Lymphocytes

69

What does "CD" mean?

Cluster of differentiation

70

Prominent feature of lymphocytes

Round, densely stained nucleus with a pale basophilic, non-granular cytoplasm

71

Which can pahgocytize more bacteria? Neutrophils or macrophages?

Macrophages - up to 100 bacteria
Neutrophils - 3-20 bacteria

72

Movement of neutrophils and macrophages towards a chemical signal

Chemotaxis

73

Criteria for diapedesis

Invasion of the basement membrane

74

Movement out of the circulatory system and into the site of injury

Diapedesis

75

In tissue injury, ____ cells will release histamin causing vasodilation and increased vascular permeability

Mast cells

76

1st line of defense in injury

Tissue macrophages

77

2nd line of defense

Neutrophils

78

3rd line of defense

Monocytes

Can be converted to tissue macrophage

79

Monocyte activation can take up to

8 hours

80

4th line of defense

Increase monocyte and granulocyte production by the BM

Mediated by: TNF, Il-1, GM-CSF, M-CSF

81

The 4th line of defense take up to

3-4 days

82

Antibodies constitute how many percent of plasma proteins?

20%

83

2 parts of an antibody

Variable portion
Constant portion

84

Most abundant antibody (75%)

IgG

85

Smallest antibody, only one able to cross the placenta

IgG

86

Antibody in secondary response

IgG

87

Antibody in primary response

IgM

88

Largest antibody

IgM

89

Main immunoglobulin in secretions

IgA

90

Mechanism of action of antibodies

Direct and indirect

91

Direct mechanism of action of antibodies include

Agglutination
Precipitation
Neutralization
Lysis

92

The complement system is responsible for 3 things

Opsonization
MAC
Stimulate inflammation

93

Most numerous of Tcells

Helper T cell

94

T helper cells

CD and MHC?

CD4 MHCII

95

Cytotoxic T cell

CD and MHC?

CD8 and MHC I

96

Cytotoxic T cells create holes through

Perforins

97

Targets of CD8 cells

Virally infected cells, cancer cells, transplanted cells

98

Macrophages present antigens to Helper T cells with what interleukin?

Il-1

99

T helper cells call B cells by which interleukins?

IL 4, 5, 6

100

t helper cells call CD8, supressor Tc, and memory t cells by which IL?

Il-2

101

Plays an important role in limiting the ability of the immune system to attack a person's own body tissue.

Suppressor T cells

102

Rhesus antigen

Antigen D

103

Blood type A antigen

n acetyl galactosamine

104

Type B antigen

Galactose

105

Determined by genotype from mom and dad

Agglutinogen

106

Spontaneously acquired from food, bacteria

Agglutinins

107

Agglutinin production start at

2-8 months of age

108

Self organ transplantation

Autograft

109

Same species transplantation

Allograft

110

Twin transplantation

Isograft/syngeic graft

111

Transplant from other species

Xenograft

112

Isograft rejection percentage?

0%

113

Events in hemostasis

Vascular constriction
Platelet plug formation
Blood coagulation
Resolution

114

Vasoconstricting agent in injury

Endothelin 1

115

Mediators of platelet adhesion

VWF
gp1b

116

Mediators of platelet aggregation

Fibrinogen
GpIIb-IIIa

117

Pathway activated due to trauma to the vascular walls and is faster and more explosive

Extrinsic pathway

118

Pathway activated due to trauma of the blood cells or exposure of blood to collagen from traumatized vessel walls

Intrinsic

119

Extrinsic pathway is initiated by

Tissue factor

120

Thrombin causes positive feedback via the activation of

Factor V

121

The intrinsic pathway is initiated by

Factor XII and platelets

122

Which clotting factors are common to both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways?

V and X

123

Factor I

Fibrinogen

124

Factor II

Prothrombin

125

Factor III

Tissue factor, tissue thromboplastin

126

Factor IV

Calcium

127

Factor V

Proaccelerin, labile factor, Ac globulin

128

Factor VII

Serum prothrombin conversion accelerator, proconvertin, stable factor

129

Factor VIII

Antihemophilic factor, antihemophilic factor A

130

Factor IX

Plasma thromboplastin component
Christmas factor
Anyihemophilic factor B

131

Factor X

Stuart factor
Stuart prower factor

132

Factor XI

Plasma thromboplastin antecedent
Antihemophilc factor C

133

Factor XII

Hageman factor

134

Factor XIII

Fibrin stabilizing factor

135

Prekallikrein

Fletcher factor

136

HMW kininogen

Fritzgerald factor

137

Other name for plasmin

Fibrinolysin

138

Most crucial event in wound healing

Hemostasis