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Flashcards in (13) Endo 2 SLO Deck (44):
1

A long-acting insulin, like Lantus is for __?__
A. Covering the whole day (24 hrs.), providing "basal" insulin and may be combined with another form
B. When the next meal is within 30-60 minutes of the injection
C. Taking with meals, often combined with longer acting form.
D. Over night use or for ½ of the day – often combined with another form

Covering the whole day (24 hrs.), providing "basal" insulin and may be combined with another form

2

A major consequence of insulin binding to its cell surface receptors on muscle and fat cells is the translocation of the GLUT-4 transporter from the cytosol to the cell surface, allowing __?__ to flow into the cell.
A. Cholesterol
B. Fatty acids
C. Calcium
D. Glucose
E. Glycogen

Glucose

3

A number of drugs increase the risk of severe hypoglycemia when given with sulfonylureas. Which of the following should be avoided or used with great caution by patients taking a sulfonylurea?
A. NSAIDs and salicylates in large doses
B. Sulfonamides including thiazide diuretics
C. Coumarins (e.g., warfarin)
D. beta blockers
E. All the above

All the above

4

A Rapid-acting insulin , like Humalog is for __?__.
A. When the next meal is within 30-60 minutes of the injection
B. Covering the whole day (24 hrs.) and may be combined with another form
C. Taking with meals, often combined with longer acting form.
D. Over night use or for ½ of the day – often combined with another form

Taking with meals, often combined with longer acting form.

5

A short-acting insulin, like Humulin is for __?__
A. Over night use or for ½ of the day – often combined with another form
B. When the next meal is within 30-60 minutes of the injection
C. Covering the whole day (24 hrs.) and may be combined with another form
D. Taking with meals, often combined with longer acting form.

When the next meal is within 30-60 minutes of the injection

6

A type of diabetes that has mixed DMT1 & DMT2 characteristics is associated with __?__.
A. Cystic fibrosis
B. Diabetes insipidus
C. Gestational diabetes
D. Diabetes mellitus type 1
E. Diabetes mellitus type 2

Cystic fibrosis

7

Acarbose (Precose) inhibits a glucosidase, which means it acts to reduce blood glucose by __?__
A. Preventing the breakdown of incretins
B. Preventing the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates
C. Blocking hepatic gluconeogenesis
D. Stimulating the pancreas to release more insulin
E. Mimicking incretins

Preventing the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates

8

Acarbose (Precose) is a(n) __?__ antihyperglycemic drug used as an adjunct to diet and exercise to treat __?__.
A. Oral /Diabetes insipidus
B. Parenteral /DMT1
C. Oral /DMT 1 and DMT 2
D. Parenteral/Hypoglycemia
E. Parenteral /DMT1 and some cases of DMT2

Oral /DMT 1 and DMT 2

9

Alpha glucosidase inhibitors like __?__ are associated with gas.
A. Insulin
B. Metformin
C. Liraglutide
D. Glucagon
E. Acarbose

Acarbose

10

An Intermediate-acting insulin, like NPH is for __?_
A. Taking with meals, often combined with longer acting form.
B. Covering the whole day (24 hrs.) & may be combined with another form
C. Over night use or for ½ of the day – often combined with another form
D. When the next meal is within 30-60 minutes of the injection

Over night use or for ½ of the day – often combined with another form

11

Bromocriptine given in very low doses first thing in the morning is indicated to help provide glycemic control in DMT2 patients along with diet and exercise. This product is called__?__
A. Cycloset
B. Parlodel
C. Navane
D. Stalevo
E. L-Dopa

Cycloset

12

Chlorpropamide (Diabinese) is a 1st generation sulfonylurea, which makes it a secretagogue. What does secretagogue mean?
A. It prevents the pancreas from releasing insulin
B. It inhibits secreted insulin from binding to its receptor
C. It causes muscle and fat cells to secrete insulin
D. It stimulates the pancreas to secrete glucagon
E. It stimulates the pancreas to secrete insulin

It stimulates the pancreas to secrete insulin

13

Chlorpropamide (Diabinese) is a(n) __?__ antihyperglycemic drug used as an adjunct to diet and exercise to treat __?__.
A. Oral /DMT2
B. Oral /Diabetes insipidus
C. Oral /DMT1
D. None of the given answers is correct
E. Parenteral /DMT1 and some cases of DMT2

Oral /DMT2

14

Exogenous __?__ is associated with the release of catecholamines.
A. DDP4 inhibitors
B. Glucagon
C. Insulin
D. GLP-1 agonists
E. Acarbose

Glucagon

15

Glucagon (Glucagen) is a(n) __?__ drug used to treat __?__.
A. Parenteral/Hypoglycemia
B. Parenteral/Hyperglycemia
C. Parenteral/Diabetes insipidus
D. Oral /DMT1
E. Oral/DMT2

Parenteral/Hypoglycemia

16

Glucagon (Glucagen) replaces a naturally occurring hormone that acts to __?__
A. Stimulate fatty acid synthesis
B. Increase glucose uptake by muscle and fat cells
C. Increase insulin sensitivity
D. Elevate blood glucose levels
E. Reduce blood glucose levels

Elevate blood glucose levels

17

Glyburide (Micronase) is a 2nd generation sulfonylurea which means you must have a functioning __?__.
A. Kidney
B. Lung
C. Pancreas
D. Liver
E. Gall bladder

Pancreas

18

Glyburide (Micronase) is a(n) __?__ antihyperglycemic drug used as an adjunct to diet and exercise to treat __?__.
A. Oral /DMT2
B. Oral /DMT1
C. oral/any form of diabetes
D. Oral /Diabetes insipidus
E. Parenteral /DMT1 and some cases of DMT2

Oral /DMT2

19

Insulin and glucagon are given __?__ to avoid total losses due to 1st pass:
A. Topically
B. Rectally
C. Sublingually
D. Parenterally
E. Transdermally

Parenterally

20

Insulin may cause __?__
A. Pancreatitis
B. Hypoglycemia
C. Lactic acidosis
D. Cancer
E. Hyperglycemia

Hypoglycemia

21

Lactic acidosis may be fatal in patients with poor renal function taking __?__.
A. Sulfonylureas
B. Metformin
C. GLP-1 agonists
D. Insulin
E. DDP4 inhibitors

Metformin

22

Liraglutide (Victoza) acts by __?__
A. Stimulating the pancreas to release more insulin
B. Mimicking incretins
C. Preventing the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates
D. Preventing the breakdown of incretins
E. Blocking hepatic gluconeogenesis

Mimicking incretins

23

Liraglutide (Victoza) is a(n) __?__ antihyperglycemic drug used as an adjunct to diet and exercise to treat __?__.
A. Oral /DMT1
B. Parenteral /DMT2
C. Oral /DMT2
D. Oral /Diabetes insipidus
E. Parenteral/Diabetes insipidus

Parenteral /DMT2

24

Liraglutide, a __?__, may be associated with thyroid cancer.
A. GLP-1 agonists
B. Metformin
C. Human insulin
D. Sulfonylureas
E. DDP4 inhibitors

GLP-1 agonists

25

Metformin (Glucophage) is a nonsulfonylurea with a unique mechanism. It is believed to work by:
A. Mimicking incretins
B. Inhibiting an enzyme that breaks down incretins
C. Stimulating the pancreas to release insulin
D. Blocking hepatic gluconeogenesis
E. Preventing the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates

Blocking hepatic gluconeogenesis

26

Patients with pre-existing congestive heart failure have a higher risk of death if taking __?__. These drugs are also associated with weight gain, edema and hypoglycemia.
A. Sulfonylureas
B. Metformin
C. Insulin
D. GLP-1 agonists
E. PPAR gamma agonists

PPAR gamma agonists

27

Pioglitazone (Actos) is a PPAR agonist used in combo with insulin or sulfonylurea to treat DMT2. It acts to __?__ by triggering synthesis of factors involved in glucose and lipid metabolism.
A. Increase insulin resistance
B. Eliminate insulin resistance
C. Cause insulin resistance
D. Decrease insulin resistance
E. It has no effect on insulin resistance

Decrease insulin resistance

28

Pioglitazone (Actos) is a(n) __?__ antihyperglycemic drug used as an adjunct to diet and exercise to treat __?__
A. Oral /DMT1
B. Parenteral/hypoglycemia
C. Oral /Diabetes insipidus
D. Oral /DMT2
E. Parenteral /DMT1 and some cases of DMT2

Oral /DMT2

29

Sitagliptin (Januvia) is a DPP4 inhibitor that acts to __?__
A. Block hepatic gluconeogenesis
B. Mimic incretins
C. Stimulate the pancreas to release more insulin
D. Prevent the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates
E. Prevent the breakdown of incretins

Prevent the breakdown of incretins

30

Sitagliptin (Januvia) is a(n) __?__ antihyperglycemic drug used as an adjunct to diet and exercise to treat __?__.
A. Oral /Diabetes insipidus
B. Parenteral/ Hypoglycemia
C. Oral /DMT2
D. Oral /DMT1
E. Parenteral /DMT1 and some cases of DMT2

Oral /DMT2

31

The blood glucose lowering effects of Metformin are antagonized by __?__.
A. All the listed answers are correct
B. Estrogens, including birth control pills
C. Isoniazid or INH
D. Corticosteroids, including glucocorticoids like prednisone
E. Thiazide diuretics

All the listed answers are correct

32

The normal effect of insulin binding is that blood glucose __?__.
A. Insulin has none of these effects
B. Rises, leading to hyperglycemia
C. Goes down
D. Plummets, leading to hypoglycemia
E. Is maintained at one level

Goes down

33

The severe side effects of weight gain, severe hypoglycemia and increased risk of cardiovascular death including heart attack are associated with __?__.
A. Insulin
B. GLP-1 agonists
C. DDP4 inhibitors
D. Metformin
E. Sulfonylureas

Sulfonylureas

34

The type of diabetes associated with a lack of ADH is called __?__.
A. Diabetes mellitus type 2
B. Cystic fibrosis diabetes
C. Gestational diabetes
D. Diabetes insipidus
E. Diabetes mellitus type 1

Diabetes insipidus

35

The type of diabetes commonly called “Adult onset” is related to insulin resistance and is also called __?__.
A. Gestational diabetes
B. Diabetes insipidus
C. Diabetes mellitus type 1
D. Cystic fibrosis diabetes
E. Diabetes mellitus type 2

Diabetes mellitus type 2

36

The type of diabetes known as “Juvenile onset” is related to a failure of the pancreas to produce insulin and is also known as __?__.
A. Diabetes mellitus type 1
B. Diabetes insipidus
C. Cystic fibrosis diabetes
D. Gestational diabetes
E. Diabetes mellitus type 2

Diabetes mellitus type 1

37

Type of diabetes associated with pregnancy is called __?__
A. Cystic fibrosis diabetes
B. Diabetes mellitus type 1
C. Gestational diabetes
D. Diabetes insipidus
E. Diabetes mellitus type 2

Gestational diabetes

38

Which drug requires a functioning pancreas and so cannot be used in DMT1?
A. Regular (Humulin) insulin
B. Glyburide (Micronase)
C. Acarbose (Precose)
D. Neutral Protamine Hagedorn insulin
E. Metformin (Glucophage)

Glyburide (Micronase)

39

Which drug requires functional kidneys to minimize the risk of lactic acidosis?
A. Metformin
B. Chlorpropamide
C. Insulin Aspart
D. Insulin Lispro
E. Glyburide

Metformin

40

Which drug requires insulin to be present, so requires either a functioning pancreas or is given as an adjunct to insulin?
A. Sitagliptin (Januvia)
B. Pioglitazone (Actos)
C. Glucagon (Glucagen)
D. Insulin Lispro
E. Liraglutide (Victoza)

Pioglitazone (Actos)

41

Which of the following are symptoms of HYPERglycemia?
A. Lethargy, pin point pupils and respiratory depression
B. Dry skin, dry mouth and thirst
C. Sweating, tremors and hunger
D. SJS, hypokalemia, kidney failure
E. Constipation, dry skin, tremors, dilated pupils

Dry skin, dry mouth and thirst

42

Which of the following are symptoms of HYPOglycemia?
A. Sweating, tremors and hunger
B. SJS, hypokalemia, kidney failure
C. Dry skin, dry mouth and thirst
D. Constipation, dry skin, tremors, dilated pupils
E. Lethargy, pin point pupils and respiratory depression

Sweating, tremors and hunger

43

Insulin is used to treat __?__.
A. Only DMT1, never DMT2
B. Diabetes insipidus only
C. All forms of diabetes
D. Only DMT2, never DMT1
E. DMT1 and some cases of DMT2

DMT1 and some cases of DMT2

44

Metformin (Glucophage) is a(n) __?__ antihyperglycemic drug indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to treat __?__.
A. Parenteral /DMT1 and some cases of DMT2
B. Oral /DMT1
C. Oral /Diabetes insipidus
D. Parenteral/any form of diabetes
E. Oral /DMT2

Oral /DMT2