(18) Micro 2 SLO Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in (18) Micro 2 SLO Deck (32):
1


A patient is given linezolid to treat a diabetic foot infection. Which of the following indicates they understand the nurse’s instructions?
A. Avoid processed meats high in Tyramine like Spam.
B. Report any changes in vision immediately.
C. Return in one week for a blood test (CBC).
D. Do not take any OTC cold products.
E. All the above

All the above

2

A Superinfection caused by antibiotic therapy may consist of:
A. Clostridium difficile infection
B. Bacterial overgrowth
C. Candida infection or other yeast overgrowth
D. Any new infection by another organism during therapy, usually with an antibiotic. It may be viral, bacterial, fungal, protozoal or helmintic.
E. Any of the above

Any of the above

3

Aminoglycosides and Clindamycin should not be given with __?__ because of curare-like effects. They may also trigger a myasthenic syndrome.
A. Theophylline
B. Warfarin
C. Aspirin
D. Loop diuretics
E. Neuromuscular Junction Blockers

Neuromuscular Junction Blockers

4

Aminoglycosides are associated with __?__.
A. Blood dyscrasias (aplastic anemia, thrombocytopenia and granulocytopenia), diarrhea, colitis, and grey baby syndrome
B. 8th cranial nerve damage, curare-like effects, kidney failure, confusion, depression, numbness, and photosensitivity.
C. A decreased seizure threshold.
D. Severe photosensitivity
E. Severe GI effects including exacerbation of pre-existing colitis, bone marrow depression, and enhanced NMJB activity.

8th cranial nerve damage, curare-like effects, kidney failure, confusion, depression, numbness, and photosensitivity.

5

Antibiotic resistance is potentially a result of:
A. Altered permeability of the bacterial cell
B. Inactivation of the antimicrobial agent by the bacterium
C. Alteration of the target site
D. Replacement of a sensitive pathway with a new resistant enzyme
E. Any of the above

Any of the above

6

Avoid combining aminoglycosides and __?__ because this combo predisposes the patient to ototoxicity (especially hearing loss).
A. P450 inhibitors
B. Warfarin
C. Erythromycin
D. Theophylline
E. Loop diuretics (e.g., furosemide)

Loop diuretics (e.g., furosemide)

7

Because Chloramphenicol is known to cause fatal blood dyscrasias, other drugs that cause __?__ should be avoided.
A. P450 inhibition
B. Bone marrow suppression
C. P450 induction
D. Ototoxicity
E. Inhibition of COX

Bone marrow suppression

8

Before giving Linezolid, any serotonergic drugs must be discontinued and the patient monitored because linezolid is associated with __?__.
A. 8th cranial nerve damage.
B. Blood dyscrasias (aplastic anemia, thrombocytopenia and granulocytopenia), diarrhea, colitis, and grey baby syndrome.
C. MAOI activity
D. A decreased seizure threshold.
E. Severe photosensitivity

MAOI activity

9

Chloramphenicol is associated with __?__
A. A decreased seizure threshold.
B. 8th cranial nerve damage.
C. Severe GI effects including exacerbation of pre-existing colitis.
D. Blood dyscrasias (aplastic anemia, thrombocytopenia and granulocytopenia), diarrhea, colitis, and grey baby syndrome.
E. Severe photosensitivity

Blood dyscrasias (aplastic anemia, thrombocytopenia and granulocytopenia), diarrhea, colitis, and grey baby syndrome.

10

Chronic chloramphenicol treatment is associated with __?__
A. Optic and peripheral neuropathies
B. Severe photosensitivity
C. A decreased seizure threshold.
D. Staining of permanent teeth during development.
E. 8th cranial nerve toxicity

Optic and peripheral neuropathies

11

Clindamycin is associated with __?__.
A. Severe photosensitivity
B. 8th cranial nerve damage, curare-like effects, kidney failure, confusion, depression, numbness, and photosensitivity.
C. Severe GI effects including exacerbation of pre-existing colitis. It can also depress bone marrow function, and enhance NMJB
D. MAOI activity
E. Blood dyscrasias (aplastic anemia, thrombocytopenia and granulocytopenia), diarrhea, colitis, and grey baby syndrome.

Severe GI effects including exacerbation of pre-existing colitis. It can also depress bone marrow function, and enhance NMJB

12

Clindamycin solutions contain benzyl alcohol which may cause __?__ (note: any pharmaceutical containing benzyl alcohol may cause this, not just clindamycin).
A. Gasping syndrome in neonates
B. Torsade de pointes
C. Hearing loss
D. Grey baby syndrome
E. Neuromuscular junction blockade

Gasping syndrome in neonates

13

Due to the risk for serotonin syndrome, Linazolid should not be given with serotonergic drugs (e.g, SSRIs) or OTC (__?__) decongestants
A. Anti muscarinic
B. Anticholinergic
C. Sympathomimetic
D. Antihistaminic
E. Cholinergic

Sympathomimetic

14

Erythromycin is a __?__ and can cause levels of theophylline, digoxin and CCBs to become toxic.
A. Potent antifungal
B. Tetracycline antibiotic
C. Potent P450 inhibitor
D. Diuretic
E. Cell wall synthesis inhibitor

Potent P450 inhibitor

15

Erythromycin predisposes the elderly to __?__
A. Torsade de pointes
B. Vestibular (balance) problems
C. 8th cranial nerve damage
D. Hearing loss
E. Blood dyscrasias

Torsade de pointes

16

Macrolides are associated with __?__
A. A decreased seizure threshold.
B. Blood dyscrasias (aplastic anemia, thrombocytopenia and granulocytopenia), diarrhea, colitis, and grey baby syndrome.
C. Staining of permanent teeth during development.
D. 8th cranial nerve damage, curare-like effects, kidney failure, confusion, depression, numbness, and photosensitivity.
E. Optic and peripheral neuropathies

A decreased seizure threshold.

17

Tetracycline antibiotics are associated with __?__.
A. Blood dyscrasias (aplastic anemia, thrombocytopenia and granulocytopenia), diarrhea, colitis, and grey baby syndrome.
B. A decreased seizure threshold.
C. Severe photosensitivity
D. 8th cranial nerve damage.
E. Severe GI effects including exacerbation of pre-existing colitis. It can also depress bone marrow function, and enhance NMJB

Severe photosensitivity

18

Tetracycline antibiotics are associated with__?__.
A. Staining of permanent teeth during development.
B. Severe photosensitivity
C. Anaphylactic allergic reactions
D. Blood dyscrasias (neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and others)
E. All of the above

All of the above

19

Tetracyclines (EXCEPT doxycycline) are chelated by __?__
A. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI)
B. Water
C. Tyramine
D. Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors
E. Multivalent cations (Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, Zn)

Multivalent cations (Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, Zn)

20

The dosage of macrolides, aminoglycosides, Chloramphenicol, and lincosamides must be adjusted and levels monitored in:
A. Kidney patients
B. Asthma patients
C. Hypertensive patients
D. Patients on concomitant theophylline
E. Patients on concomitant NMJB

Kidney patients

21

The mechanism of action of Aminoglycosides (Gentamicin & Streptomycin) is:
A. Inhibition of DNA replication
B. Inhibition of protein synthesis
C. They have multiple mechanisms of action
D. Inhibition of cell wall synthesis
E. Inhibition of folate synthesis

Inhibition of protein synthesis

22

The mechanism of action of Chloramphenicol is:
A. Inhibition of protein synthesis
B. Inhibition of folate synthesis, thus blocking DNA synthesis
C. Inhibition of DNA replication
D. They have multiple mechanisms of action
E. Inhibition of cell wall synthesis

Inhibition of protein synthesis

23

The mechanism of action of the Lincosamides (Clindamycin) is:
A. Inhibition of cell wall synthesis
B. Inhibition of protein synthesis
C. Inhibition of DNA replication
D. They have multiple mechanisms of action
E. Inhibition of folate synthesis, thus blocking DNA synthesis

Inhibition of protein synthesis

24

The mechanism of action of the Macrolides (Erythromycin and Azithromycin) is:
A. Inhibition of folate synthesis, thus blocking DNA synthesis
B. Inhibition of cell wall synthesis
C. Inhibition of DNA replication
D. Inhibition of protein synthesis
E. They have multiple mechanisms of action

Inhibition of protein synthesis

25

The mechanism of action of the Oxazolidinone (Linezolid) is:
A. Inhibition of folate synthesis, thus blocking DNA synthesis
B. Inhibition of protein synthesis
C. Inhibition of DNA replication
D. Unknown
E. Inhibition of cell wall synthesis

Inhibition of protein synthesis

26

The mechanism of action of the Streptogramins (Synercid combo) is:
A. Inhibition of folate synthesis, thus blocking DNA synthesis
B. They have multiple mechanisms of action
C. Inhibition of cell wall synthesis
D. Inhibition of protein synthesis
E. Inhibition of DNA replication

Inhibition of protein synthesis

27

The nurse knows that the client understands how to take azithromycin when they make which statement?
A. It will cause visual disturbances
B. Don't take with milk
C. It will cause muscle weakness and dizziness
D. Take only once a day
E. Don’t take with food

Take only once a day

28

The patient is given streptomycin for a severe bacterial infection, which adverse effect(s) does the nurse include in the plan of care to monitor the client’s status?
A. Photosensitivity
B. Mental depression
C. Weight gain
D. Bruising
E. Greying of the skin

Weight gain

29

Which of the following is concentrated in bile and excreted unchanged in bile and urine?
A. Chlormaphenicol
B. Aminoglycosides
C. Macrolides
D. Tetracyclines
E. Lincosamides

Tetracyclines

30

Which of the following is taught by the nurse to a client taking an oral tetracycline?
A. Avoid the sun and use sunscreen
B. Take the pills with milk
C. Brush your teeth frequently to prevent staining
D. All of the listed answers are in the patient teaching plan
E. Report any muscle weakness

Avoid the sun and use sunscreen

31

If tetracycline antibiotics are given to young kids:
A. The 8th cranial nerve is damaged
B. Blood dyscrasias appear
C. Rickets may develop
D. Hearing loss is probable
E. Tooth discoloration may occur

Tooth discoloration may occur

32

The mechanism of action of the Tetracyclines (Tetracycline & Doxycycline) is:
A. Inhibition of cell wall synthesis
B. Unknown
C. Inhibition of protein synthesis
D. Inhibition of DNA replication
E. Inhibition of folate synthesis, thus blocking DNA synthesis

Inhibition of protein synthesis