2nd Quarter- ANATOMY 2 Exam 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2nd Quarter- ANATOMY 2 Exam 2 Deck (82):
1

Another system within the body which is lesser known than the blood vascular system is known as the

lymph vascular system

2

dealing with a system of vessels

vascular systems

3

two vascular systems within the body

blood and lymph

4

The substance which ONLY flows through the lymph vessels. (spring like) - a substance in the body which ALWAYS forms or BEGINS from tissue fluid.

lymph

5

The substance which bathes and surrounds the body cells.

tissue fluid

6

The flow of all lymph in the human body, always begins in the smallest vessels called

lymph capillaries

7

functions of the Lymph Vascular System

a. Maintain proper tissue fluid balance.
b. Helps to remove other waste products.
c. One of the body’s basic defense systems (phagocytosis, antibodies).

8

Specialized types of tissue strategically placed throughout the human body

lymphoid tissue

9

three pairs of lymphoid tissue, including the adenoids, which protect the opening between the mouth cavity proper and oropharynx (throat).

tonsils

10

--The largest mass of Lymphoid Tissue in the human body.
--Located in the Abdominal Pelvic Cavity.
--Helps the liver to recycle red blood cells.

spleen

11

A mass of lymphoid tissue. The LARGEST and MOST ACTIVE during INFANCY. Located at the BASE OF THE NECK. Produces antibodies for the rest of a person’s life called T-CELLS. This gland will shrink with age

thymus gland

12

Filters for lymph. They are strategically placed in the human body. There are four (4) specific locations.
• All are named for their location.

lymph nodes

13

located in the ARM PIT region.These lymph nodes filter lymph originating from the UPPER EXTREMITIES and the PECTORAL REGION (chest). Used to detect or stage the level of malignancy in BREAST CANCER.

axillary lymph nodes

14

located in the NECK region. These lymph nodes filter lymph originating from the HEAD AND NECK. Used to detect HODGIKN'S DISEASE.

cervical lymph nodes

15

located in the GROIN region. These lymph nodes filter lymph originating from the LOWER extremities. (BUBONIC PLAGUE)

inguinal lymph nodes

16

located in the INTESTINES. These lymph originating from the INTESTINAL TRACK OR BOTH LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINES. Used to detect stages of COLON CANCER

mesentric lymph nodes

17

the waxy, milky substance which is formed by the union of digestive fats with lymph.

(fat mix with lymph)

chyle

18

when chyle comes from the small intestine and lymph comes from the lower extremities, the two get together at a temporary enlarged pouch called a

cistera chyli

19

the flow of chlye begins where?

in the lacteals

20

what color is lymph?

clear, straw colored, or may have an amber color (yellow tent)

21

small finger like projections in the small intestine by which increases the surface area over which food could be absorbed.

a single one contains three structures (vein, artery, and lacteal)

villi

22

it is estimated that what percentage of the digestive fat that is absorbed in the small intestine will go into the lymph capillary

30%

23

a special name given to lymph capillaries found only in the small intestine

lacteals

24

two large main ducts or passageways for lymph that are the ONLY ducts of the lymph system that periodically dump into the bloodstream.

thoracic duct
right lymphatic duct

25

the largest lymph duct in the human body. 3/4 of the lymph in the body drains through this duct. Lymph coming from the LEFT upper extremities, LEFT side of the head and neck, LEFT side of the chest, the ENTIRE abdominal cavity, and BOTH lower extremities will drain through this duct.

thoracic duct

26

- second largest lymph duct that only originates on the RIGHT side of the head and neck. The RIGHTupper extremities, and RIGHT side of the thoracic cavity will eventually drain through this duct

right lymphatic duct

27

Once lymph has gone into the right lymphatic duct or thoracic duct, it is now called __________

blood

28

General Characteristics of BLOOD

ph of blood
viscosity (thickness)
temperature of blood

29

ph of blood

7.3 - 7.4 slightly alkaline

30

- a measure of the resistance to the flow of a liquid

viscosity (thickness)

31

Blood moves _______ times thicker than _______

4 1/2 to 5 1/2
water

32

Temperature of blood

100.3 F
slightly warmer than normal body temperature of 98.6 F

33

general composition of human blood

plasma 55%
corpuscles 45%

34

(Liquid portion) of non- clotted blood, slightly amber or straw color.

plasma

35

45% of whole human blood

formed elements
(corpuscles)

36

name the four types of lymphoid tissue

tonsils
spleen
thymus gland
lymph nodes

37

a large pouch

cistera

38

the flow of chyle end at the cisteria chyli and becomes lymph

chyli

39

its flow goes in one direction
its flow in humans will eventually go into the blood system
its flow is very sluggish and is accomplished by muscle contraction

lymph

40

once lymph enter the _________ __________, it will flow in ONLY __________ direction(s) by means of slightly larger ________ ___________. From the __________, the lymph will move to the ________ _________ which are strategically placed for filter of lymph. Once at the ________ _________, there are ____ large main ducts or passageways for lymph in the human body

______________

______________

lymph capillaries
one
lymph vessels
vessels
lymph nodes
lymph nodes
two

right lymphatic duct
thoracic duct

41

components of plasma

92 % water
8 % dissolved substances

42

(Components of plasma)
blood proteins (clotting process)

serum albumin
serum globulin
fibrinogen

43

aids in forming the fibrous net which prevents you from bleeding to death

fibrinogen

44

non protein components of plasma

salts, nutrients, gases, hormones, clotting factors, enzymes, and antibodies

45

non protein salt components of plasma

salt
potassium
calcium
magnesium

46

non protein nutrient components of plasma

food glucose (blood sugar)
lipids-fats

47

primary constituent of urine

ammonia

48

essential clotting factor of plasma

Factor 8

49

speed up the rate of a chemical reaction and not used up in the process

enzymes (ASE)

50

dissolved within the plasma portion of blood

antibodies

51

name the three groups of formal elements of blood

erythrocytes
leukocytes
thrombocytes

52

red blood cells

erythrocytes

53

white blood cells

leukocytes

54

platelets

thrombocytes

55

most numerous of the corpuscles found in the formed element portion of the blood. 7 microns in diameter

erythrocytes

56

bioncave disc shaped; DO NOT have a nucleus, 4.5 to 5 million per cubic millimeter of blood; crenation and hemolysis; originate in bone marrow, 120 day lifespan; destroyed in the liver and the spleen

There only function is to carry hemoglobin.

erythrocytes

57

a protein molecule to which oxygen initially attaches itself in the lungs

hemoglobin

58

the shrinking of red blood cells when placed in hypertonic solution

crenation

59

the bursting or rupturing of a red blood cell when placed in a hypotonic solution

hemolysis

60

only function of the erythrocytes

to carry hemoglobin

61

least numerous of the corpuscles, white blood cells, 5000-9000 per cubic millimeter of blood,

leukocytes

62

name the two types of leukocytes and their subtypes

agranulocytes (lymphocytes and monocytes)
granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophil)

63

type of white blood cells that do not contain granules in their protoplasm

agranulocytes

64

type of agranulocyte that has a large, single nucleus without granules in them. Responsible for production of antibodies in all living things

lymphocytes

65

type of agranulocyte also called scavenger cells. They are shipped by the body where a scar has formed to rid the body of pus so scab can form

monocytes

66

type of white blood cells that do contain granules in their protoplasm

granulocytes

67

type of granulocyte; most numerous of the white blood cells. Greatest quantity (65%) White blood cell count. Has granules within its protoplasm when the cells are stained it is not exposed to any color- no color- it is neutrally stained. Its function is to perform phagocytosis - ingest, surrounds, and destroys anything foreign.

neutrophils

68

the type of granulocytes that stain red in the laboratory setting

eosinophils

69

type of granulocytes; the least numerous of the white blood cells. Its granules will stain blue. This cell is what causes people to have allergic reactions

basophil

70

Functions of white blood cells

defense of the body against infection by diapedesis and phagocytosis

71

- have the ability to squeeze themselves through pores of the capillaries and perform phagocytosis - surround, ingest and destroy the infection.

Diapedesis

72

- looks like fragments of cells. Purpose is initiate or begin clotting process.

Thrombocytes – (platelets)

73

fragmented cells, 300,000 per cubic millimeter; normal coagulation time: 3-5 minutes; plasma vs. serum

thrombocytes (platelets)

74

the liquid portion of non-clotted blood

plasma

75

the liquid portion of blood left over after blood has clotted

serum

76

function of thrombocytes

clotting of blood, to initiate the clotting process.

77

Chemistry of clotting blood

a) Fragmentation of platelets released a chemical called thromboplastin.
b) Thromboplastin neutralizes antiprothrombin, thus liberating prothrombin.
c) Prothrombin unites with calcium to form thrambin.
d) Thrambin and fibrinogen from fibrin.
e) Fibrin and blood cells form the clot within three to five minutes.

78

Substances in blood that by themselves will promote blood clotting.

a) Thromboplastin (thromborinase) (cephalin)
b) Prothrombin
c) Calcium CA
d) Fibrinogen

79

Substance naturally in the blood that by themselves will inhibit blood from clotting.

Antithrombin
Antiprothrombin (heparin)

80

Origin of the thrombocytes

bone marrow

81

function of blood

a. Transport – O2, CO2, food, waste, hormones
b. Temperature regulation – 98.6
c. Control of pH – 7.3 to 7.4
d. Control of water balance – 92% of plasma is H2O, can’t lose more than ½ or death
e. Defense against infection – by leukocytes (5)

82

the active chemical substance present in the secretion of endocrine glands

hormones