Flashcards in 2nd Quarter- ANATOMY 2 Exam 2 Deck (82):
Another system within the body which is lesser known than the blood vascular system is known as the
lymph vascular system
dealing with a system of vessels
two vascular systems within the body
blood and lymph
The substance which ONLY flows through the lymph vessels. (spring like) - a substance in the body which ALWAYS forms or BEGINS from tissue fluid.
The substance which bathes and surrounds the body cells.
The flow of all lymph in the human body, always begins in the smallest vessels called
functions of the Lymph Vascular System
a. Maintain proper tissue fluid balance.
b. Helps to remove other waste products.
c. One of the body’s basic defense systems (phagocytosis, antibodies).
Specialized types of tissue strategically placed throughout the human body
three pairs of lymphoid tissue, including the adenoids, which protect the opening between the mouth cavity proper and oropharynx (throat).
--The largest mass of Lymphoid Tissue in the human body.
--Located in the Abdominal Pelvic Cavity.
--Helps the liver to recycle red blood cells.
A mass of lymphoid tissue. The LARGEST and MOST ACTIVE during INFANCY. Located at the BASE OF THE NECK. Produces antibodies for the rest of a person’s life called T-CELLS. This gland will shrink with age
Filters for lymph. They are strategically placed in the human body. There are four (4) specific locations.
• All are named for their location.
located in the ARM PIT region.These lymph nodes filter lymph originating from the UPPER EXTREMITIES and the PECTORAL REGION (chest). Used to detect or stage the level of malignancy in BREAST CANCER.
axillary lymph nodes
located in the NECK region. These lymph nodes filter lymph originating from the HEAD AND NECK. Used to detect HODGIKN'S DISEASE.
cervical lymph nodes
located in the GROIN region. These lymph nodes filter lymph originating from the LOWER extremities. (BUBONIC PLAGUE)
inguinal lymph nodes
located in the INTESTINES. These lymph originating from the INTESTINAL TRACK OR BOTH LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINES. Used to detect stages of COLON CANCER
mesentric lymph nodes
the waxy, milky substance which is formed by the union of digestive fats with lymph.
(fat mix with lymph)
when chyle comes from the small intestine and lymph comes from the lower extremities, the two get together at a temporary enlarged pouch called a
the flow of chlye begins where?
in the lacteals
what color is lymph?
clear, straw colored, or may have an amber color (yellow tent)
small finger like projections in the small intestine by which increases the surface area over which food could be absorbed.
a single one contains three structures (vein, artery, and lacteal)
it is estimated that what percentage of the digestive fat that is absorbed in the small intestine will go into the lymph capillary
a special name given to lymph capillaries found only in the small intestine
two large main ducts or passageways for lymph that are the ONLY ducts of the lymph system that periodically dump into the bloodstream.
right lymphatic duct
the largest lymph duct in the human body. 3/4 of the lymph in the body drains through this duct. Lymph coming from the LEFT upper extremities, LEFT side of the head and neck, LEFT side of the chest, the ENTIRE abdominal cavity, and BOTH lower extremities will drain through this duct.
- second largest lymph duct that only originates on the RIGHT side of the head and neck. The RIGHTupper extremities, and RIGHT side of the thoracic cavity will eventually drain through this duct
right lymphatic duct
Once lymph has gone into the right lymphatic duct or thoracic duct, it is now called __________
General Characteristics of BLOOD
ph of blood
temperature of blood
ph of blood
7.3 - 7.4 slightly alkaline
- a measure of the resistance to the flow of a liquid
Blood moves _______ times thicker than _______
4 1/2 to 5 1/2
Temperature of blood
slightly warmer than normal body temperature of 98.6 F
general composition of human blood
(Liquid portion) of non- clotted blood, slightly amber or straw color.
45% of whole human blood
name the four types of lymphoid tissue
a large pouch
the flow of chyle end at the cisteria chyli and becomes lymph
its flow goes in one direction
its flow in humans will eventually go into the blood system
its flow is very sluggish and is accomplished by muscle contraction
once lymph enter the _________ __________, it will flow in ONLY __________ direction(s) by means of slightly larger ________ ___________. From the __________, the lymph will move to the ________ _________ which are strategically placed for filter of lymph. Once at the ________ _________, there are ____ large main ducts or passageways for lymph in the human body
right lymphatic duct
components of plasma
92 % water
8 % dissolved substances
(Components of plasma)
blood proteins (clotting process)
aids in forming the fibrous net which prevents you from bleeding to death
non protein components of plasma
salts, nutrients, gases, hormones, clotting factors, enzymes, and antibodies
non protein salt components of plasma
non protein nutrient components of plasma
food glucose (blood sugar)
primary constituent of urine
essential clotting factor of plasma
speed up the rate of a chemical reaction and not used up in the process
dissolved within the plasma portion of blood
name the three groups of formal elements of blood
red blood cells
white blood cells
most numerous of the corpuscles found in the formed element portion of the blood. 7 microns in diameter
bioncave disc shaped; DO NOT have a nucleus, 4.5 to 5 million per cubic millimeter of blood; crenation and hemolysis; originate in bone marrow, 120 day lifespan; destroyed in the liver and the spleen
There only function is to carry hemoglobin.
a protein molecule to which oxygen initially attaches itself in the lungs
the shrinking of red blood cells when placed in hypertonic solution
the bursting or rupturing of a red blood cell when placed in a hypotonic solution
only function of the erythrocytes
to carry hemoglobin
least numerous of the corpuscles, white blood cells, 5000-9000 per cubic millimeter of blood,
name the two types of leukocytes and their subtypes
agranulocytes (lymphocytes and monocytes)
granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophil)
type of white blood cells that do not contain granules in their protoplasm
type of agranulocyte that has a large, single nucleus without granules in them. Responsible for production of antibodies in all living things
type of agranulocyte also called scavenger cells. They are shipped by the body where a scar has formed to rid the body of pus so scab can form
type of white blood cells that do contain granules in their protoplasm
type of granulocyte; most numerous of the white blood cells. Greatest quantity (65%) White blood cell count. Has granules within its protoplasm when the cells are stained it is not exposed to any color- no color- it is neutrally stained. Its function is to perform phagocytosis - ingest, surrounds, and destroys anything foreign.
the type of granulocytes that stain red in the laboratory setting
type of granulocytes; the least numerous of the white blood cells. Its granules will stain blue. This cell is what causes people to have allergic reactions
Functions of white blood cells
defense of the body against infection by diapedesis and phagocytosis
- have the ability to squeeze themselves through pores of the capillaries and perform phagocytosis - surround, ingest and destroy the infection.
- looks like fragments of cells. Purpose is initiate or begin clotting process.
Thrombocytes – (platelets)
fragmented cells, 300,000 per cubic millimeter; normal coagulation time: 3-5 minutes; plasma vs. serum
the liquid portion of non-clotted blood
the liquid portion of blood left over after blood has clotted
function of thrombocytes
clotting of blood, to initiate the clotting process.
Chemistry of clotting blood
a) Fragmentation of platelets released a chemical called thromboplastin.
b) Thromboplastin neutralizes antiprothrombin, thus liberating prothrombin.
c) Prothrombin unites with calcium to form thrambin.
d) Thrambin and fibrinogen from fibrin.
e) Fibrin and blood cells form the clot within three to five minutes.
Substances in blood that by themselves will promote blood clotting.
a) Thromboplastin (thromborinase) (cephalin)
c) Calcium CA
Substance naturally in the blood that by themselves will inhibit blood from clotting.
Origin of the thrombocytes
function of blood
a. Transport – O2, CO2, food, waste, hormones
b. Temperature regulation – 98.6
c. Control of pH – 7.3 to 7.4
d. Control of water balance – 92% of plasma is H2O, can’t lose more than ½ or death
e. Defense against infection – by leukocytes (5)