2nd QUARTER- EMBALMING Exam 3 Flashcards Preview

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1

change occuring prior to the embalming process

pre-embalming changes

2

Those changes occurring prior to somatic death

Ante mortem (Agonal) changes

3

Thermal changes - ante mortem

Agonal Algor
Agonal fever

4

a decrease in the body temperature prior to somatic death.
 Due to a slow metabolism and poor circulation.
 Slows the onset of rigor mortis and decomposition

Agonal Algor

5

- an increase in body temperature prior to somatic death.
 Commonly found in infectious diseases.
 Speeds the rate of rigor mortis and decomposition.

Agonal fever

6

Blood changes - ante mortem

Hypostasis
Coagulation

7

the settling of blood and/or other fluids to the dependent portions of the body.

hypostasis

8

(clots) congealing of the blood

coagulation

9

Moisture changes - ante mortem

Agonal edema
Agonal dehydration




10

the escape of blood serum from an intravascular (inside the vein) to an extravascular location immediately before death.

 There is an increase in moisture in the tissues and cavities.
 Which results from capillary expansion.
 Therefore, it speeds the decomposition process.

agonal edema

11

If agonal edema is present, how will this affect the strength of your diluted arterial fluid?

Increase strength of the arterial solution.

12

the loss of moisture from the human body prior to somatic death.

Could result in the thickening of the blood and dehydration of certain tissue.

agonal dehydration

13

The movement of microorganisms from one area of the body to another.

An example is from the intestinal area to the blood vascular system due to capillary permeability changes.

It occurs as organisms normally confined to a specific area of the body by natural body defenses are able to move as the body loses its ability to keep them in check. The movement may be the results of the organism.

(1) Having natural motility, (2) entering the blood stream and circulating to other parts of the body, or (3) gravitating to other parts of the body during hypostasis or shift in tissue moisture.


translocation of microorganisms

14

a type of gas in tissues--

It has no odor, no skin slip; rises to highest body areas; can create intense swelling.

Results from the puncture of the lungs or pleural sac.

Seen in cardiopulmonary resuscitation treatments; puncture wounds to the thorax; rib fractures

Antemortem (prior to death) Subcutaneous emphysema

15

Treatments in the embalming aspects for gas in tissues include

channel tissue after arterial injection to release gas. Establish good arterial preservation.
The gas may escape through incision in the anterior cervical triangle, but it will not spread to other bodies

16

A series of physical and chemical changes that occur between the period of somatic death and embalming

post mortem interval

17

The ________ the time between death and embalming, the ______ changes will occur:

longer
more

18

changes in form of state of matter w/o any change in chemical composition.

post mortem physical changes

19

the cooling of the body. Post mortem cooling of the body to the surrounding temperature

algor mortis

20

The internal organs will cool ______ than the surface tissue

slower

21

Intrinsic factors (within the body) influencing the rate of algor mortis

Corpulence
Age
Cause of death

22

(the amount of adipose tissue)

Corpulence

23

why is age an intrinsic factor influencing the rate of algor mortis?

a child will cool faster than an adult. Also because of less adipose tissue

24

febrile diseases (fever) will _____the onset of rate of algor mortis

slow

25

wasting diseases (cancer) can _____ the onset of rate of algor mortis

speed

26

Extrinsic factors (outside the body) influencing the rate of algor mortis

The amount of clothing covering the body.
The temperature and humidity.
Embalming influence - cooling of the body will slow the onset of decomposition. (this is the reason for refrigeration)

27

can also occur post mortem. A reason for elevating of the head and feet during embalming.

hypostasis

28

Because of an increase of moisture, bacterial activity could be high. Why?

because of a warm moist environment increases bacteria activity

29

Increase moisture will _________ the preservative demands for body regions in which hypostasis had occurred

increase

30

Hypostatis will cause this. It is the settling of blood brings a discoloration that appears with 1/2 to 2 hours after death. This is a post-mortem intravascular blood discoloration that occurs as a result of hypostasis. Known as post- mortem lividity or cadaveric lividity. The discoloration may first be noticed as a dull reddish patches. As it becomes more established, it can take on a deep reddish-blue appearance. This occurs within the blood vascular system.

livor mortis

31

Can liver mortis be removed with normal arterial injection and venous drainage? Yes/No Why?

Yes
because it's intravascular

32

At death blood will shift to the _________ of the vascular system. During embalming it is the exception to find blood in the _______ when opened.

venous side
arteries

33

also known as dessication - The loss of moisture or removal of water from the dead human body.

dehydration

34

The main cause of dehydration is either:

Surface evaporation
Embalming solutions
Hypostasis

35

Primary cause of dehydration because of air movement over the body causes the loss of moisture.
(in particular the hands and face, lips, ears, and eye lids loose moisture the fastest. The reason to put moisturizer on the face and cover.)

surface evaporation

36

Why would embalming chemicals be a cause of dehydration?

they are a dehydrating chemicals

37

the gravitation of fluid

hypostasis

38

What are the ante mortem (agonal) changes that were discussed for this exam?

thermal changes
blood changes
moisture changes
trans location of microorganisms
gases in tissues

39

What are the post mortem physical changes?

algor mortis
hypostasis
livor mortis
dehydration
increase in viscosity
imbition

40

in reference to corpulence: the larger individuals cool _______; thin individuals cool ______ because of _____________

slowly
faster
adipose tissue (fat).

41

What is the reason for refrigeration?

to slow down the onset of decomposition

42

the increase in viscosity or thickness of blood, will result in?

the formation of blood clots

43

types of clots which form after death due to location of blood or increased viscosity of blood. They are usually easily removed in embalming

post mortem clots

44

a type of post mortem clot- they are long, dark red and stringy (look like currant jelly) - Fast forming and most common

Currant jelly clots

45

a type of post mortem clot- Slow in forming. Usually small and yellow in color formed after death. Usually more will be present in sudden death

Chicken fat clots

46

The (swelling of tissue) absorption of the fluid portion of blood by the tissues after death resulting in post mortem edema, excess fluid. Seen primarily in the organs of the body.

Imbibition - To imbibe

47

Post Mortem cooling of the body slows the onset of rigor mortis and decomposition. Helps keep the blood in a liquid state

Algor Mortis

48

responsible for livor mortis and later can cause post mortem stain. It also increases tissue moisture in dependent tissue

Hypostasis

49

causes a discoloration intravascular which possibly can be cleared up with normal arterial injection and venous drainage. It can also expand the capillaries. The fluid in the body gravitates as a result of hypostasis into the dependent parts causing discoloration because of an excessive amount of fluid. It has filled up the capillaries causing them to expand which will allow the fluid (mostly blood) to escape from inside the vessels (intravascular) to outside (extravascular) the vessels into the capillaries. Once outside the vessels (extravascular), it can cause post mortem stain and also cause edema (excess moisture).

Livor mortis

50

accompanied by increased blood viscosity. This forms blood clots. This darkens the skin surface and cannot be bleached. It also causes wrinkling and shriveling of the features. if extreme enough, can retard decomposition and preserve the body, but you have a bad restorative problem.

Dehydration

51

Increase in blood viscosity does what? .and also Increases resistance to arterial injection and hampers drainage.

thickens the blood and coagulation

52

changes which occur in the body after death, which also result in a change in chemical composition.

Post mortem chemical changes

53

What are the post mortem chemical changes?

Post mortem stain

Post mortem caloricity

Rigor mortis

Change in pH

Decomposition











54

an extravascular color change that occurs when heme, released by hemoglobin of red blood cells, seeps through the vessel walls and into the tissue. The blood is breaking down and decomposing which begins within 6 to 10 hours. This cannot be removed because it is extravascular. results from hemolysis (blood break down) specifically, the red blood cells.

Post mortem stain

55

the destruction or bursting of red blood cells that liberates hemoglobin. begins approximately 6 - 10 hours after death (post mortem cellular death). Since post mortem stain is extravascular, it generally will not be removed with normal arterial injection and venous drainage.

Hemolysis -

56

What can you do to eliminate having to use a lot of opaque cosmetics on post mortem stain?

Post mortem stain may be bleached (with bleaching agents) as a form of treatment (cavity fluid or phenol placed on the affected area.)

57

most permanent blood discoloration that we, as embalmers face

Post mortem stain

58

The slight rise in the body temperature following somatic death. Results from continued cellular metabolism after somatic death. This occurs until the entire oxygen supply is used. Usually, found in cases of sudden death – heat is continually produced after death by metabolism of food products in tissues. Various methods of cooling the body, such as circulation have stopped. Therefore, heat accumulates & body temperature rises.

Post mortem caloricity

59

The post mortem, temporary, stiffening of the body muscles due to a natural chemical body process. (*NB define: Post mortem stiffening of body muscles by natural body process).

Rigor mortis

60

marks the end of muscle cell life. Generally appears in the average body 2 to 4 hours after death

Rigor mortis

61

the complete muscular relaxation

Flaccidity

62

the relaxation of the muscles immediately after somatic death. (Dead less than 4 hours)

Primary flaccidity (flaccid / soft)

63

the relaxation of the muscles after rigor mortis passes in an unembalmed body when the body relaxes for the second time. (Dead more than 4 hours) The pH has gone from lowest reading of 5 back to normal alkaline side.

Secondary flaccidity

64

*****Since rigor mortis, is defined as postmortem stiffening of body due to changes in ph. Maximum rigidity for rigor mortis would be ? on pH scale.

5

65

Order of appearance and disappearance of rigor mortis:

1. Eyes 2. Face 3. Neck 4. Upper extremities 5. Trunk 6. Lower extremities

Rigor mortis will leave in the same order.

66

PHYSICAL METHODS OF REDUCING RIGOR MORTIS

Flexing the fingers, wrists, arms, and legs.

Extending the arms and legs.

Rotating the jaw and neck to loosen the muscles.

Massaging- bathing and massage the body prior to embalming.

67

Rigor mortis - Influence on embalming

May be difficult in establishing a position of the body.
May be difficult in posing the features. Gives a false sign of preserved tissue.
May restrict fluid distribution - because arteries are surrounded by muscles which are restricted because of rigor mortis.

68

The (acidic or alkaline ???) pH does not provide a good medium for reaction with the arterial fluid after secondary flaccidity preservative demand increases.

acidic

69

Initial softness of the remains after death

Primary flaccidity

70

pH has gone from lowest reading of 5 back to normal alkaline side.

Secondary flaccidity

71

The order of rigor would be

primary flaccidity, maximum rigidity, and secondary flaccidity

72

Muscle in which rigor mortis is present will not decompose. Why?

The acid present inhibits bacterial activity. Rigor mortis causes the body to be more acidic which kill bacteria. Bacteria likes a slightly alkaline pH.

73

0-7 on pH scale

acidic

74

7-14 on pH scale

alkaline

75

Normal pH of the blood and tissue of the body

approximately 7.4

76

After death, lactic acid begins to accumulate in the muscle tissue (results in rigor mortis). The pH will drop to an acid level of 6 or below. As protein breaks down (decomposition), there is a gradual buildup in the tissue of nitrogen products such as ammonia. When decomposition occurs, the body goes to the acidic.
The ammonia neutralizes the acids in the tissue. Therefore, the pH of the tissues becomes alkaline above 7. Because the ammonia present acts to neutralize formaldehyde, there is a greater preservative demand during decomposition. A greater strength of formaldehyde may be needed.

--

77

Separation of compounds into simpler compounds substances by the action of microbial and/or autolytic enzymes

Decomposition

78

Types of decomposition.

Proteolysis
Lipolysis
Fermentation
Saccharolysis
Hydrolysis
Autolysis





79

decomposition or breaking down of any type of protein (prote-protein) (olysis- decomposition). Can occur in either the presence or absence of oxygen

Proteolysis

80

decomposition of proteins by action of enzymes from anaerobic (absence of free oxygen) bacteria. This form was named for the horrific smell that makes you puck. This form of proteolysis advances much quicker than the form in the presence of oxygen.

Putrefaction

81

decomposition of proteins by enzymes of aerobic (the presence of free oxygen) bacteria

Decay

82

The decomposition of fats (lipoi-fats) (olysis-decomposition). This will not have an effect on embalming. One substance formed as a result is adipocere (grave wax).

Lipolysis

83

begins within days of death and becomes visible in about 3 months. results from lipolysis - decomposition of fats

Adipocere

84

the bacterial decomposition of carbohydrates. The carbohydrates are breaking down.

Fermentation

85

the decomposition of sugars

Saccharolysis

86

For testing purposes the definition to use is the following: The splitting or tearing apart of compounds by the addition of water. This the key method in which decomposition occurs. (This is the definition on the slide--- A reaction in which water is one of the reactants and compounds are often broken down.)

Hydrolysis

87

self destruction of cells; decomposition of all tissues by enzymes of their own formation without microbial assistance.

Autolysis

88

(cell organelle that contains digestive enzymes) in autolysis.

lysosomes

89

When the pH of the tissue becomes acidic, what does it do? (associated with hydrolysis). In the presence of water, the released enzymes begin to digest ___________, __________, and ________

it causes the lysosomes to rupture

carbohydrates, protein, and fats.

90

Signs of decomposition:

Color change
Odor
Purge
Accumulation of gas
Desquamation (skin slip)

91

first external sign of decomposition is

color change over the lower quadrant of the abdomen.

92

the odor of decomposition is ?

penetrating, nauseating

93

the post mortem evacuation of any substance from an external body orifice as a result of pressure.

purge

94

in decomposition, there will be an accumulation of gas where?

viscera, cavities and other body tissue.

95

a separation of the epidermis from the underlying dermis, resulting in a sloughing of the epidermis.

Desquamation (skin slip)

96

the building blocks of proteins

amino acids






97

the building blocks of fats

fatty acids

98

carbohydrates break down into?

simple sugars
(monosaccharide, polysaccharide, disaccharide)

99

results from the breaking down of amino acids (initial breaking down of protein) within the intestinal tract

Ptomaines

100

types of ptomaines produced

Putrescine
Cadaverine
Indole
Skatole

101

type of ptomaine produced that causes a terrible putrid odor

putrescine

102

type of ptomaine produced which is the smell from dead unembalmed bodies

cadaverine

103

End products of decomposition: (last or end products of decomposition)

Carbon dioxide – waste gases
Water
Ammonia
Hydrogen
Hydrogen sulfide
Nitrogen
Methane – marsh or swamp gas
Phosphoric acid – element phosphorus
Sulfuric acid
Mercaptan

104

if there is a strong smell of urine, the arterial fluid strength must be __________. Why?

increased
Nitrogen weakens arterial fluid

105

Order of decomposition of body compounds.

Carbohydrates - fermentation
Protein - Putrefaction
Fats - lypolisis
Bones - longest to decompose, if at all.

106

regardless of age or sex, the first organs to decompose would be?

the lining membrane of the trachea and larynx, except for the brain of an infant and the pregnant uterus

107

last organs to decompose

Non-pregnant uterus or large blood vessels

108

intrinsic Factors governing decomposition

Corpulence -
Cause and manner of death -
Age
Amount of bacteria present in and on the body.
Sex
Pharmaceutical agents

109

A heavy person will decompose _____ than thin persons.

faster

110

a body with infectious diseases will decompose?

faster

111

young adults and adults would decompose _______ than infants and elderly.

slower

112

extrinsic factors governing decomposition

Temperature
Humidity -
Bacterial and parasitic activity- not on the body, but attracted to the odor of the decomposed, unembalmed body. Organisms that contain their food from dead organic matter
Vermin including maggots, lice, and rats.

113

optimum temperature for bacteria growth.

98-100 F

114

minimum temperature for bacteria growth

32 F

115

maximum temperature for bacteria growth

120F

116

Body coolers should be set about (how many degrees). this will retard, but not stop decomposition

32-40 F

117

what happens when the temperature exceeds 120 F

the body is destroyed

118

warm moist air will _________ decomposition.

accelerate

119

Could agonal edema and agonal dehydration occur at approximately the same time in the same body?

Yes, one area may become edematous because of moisture that has left, or dehydrated, another area.

120

loss of tissue just prior to death, could result in thickening of the blood, dehydration of certain tissues

Emaciation