Flashcards in 2nd QUARTER- EMBALMING Exam 3 Deck (120):
change occuring prior to the embalming process
Those changes occurring prior to somatic death
Ante mortem (Agonal) changes
Thermal changes - ante mortem
a decrease in the body temperature prior to somatic death.
Due to a slow metabolism and poor circulation.
Slows the onset of rigor mortis and decomposition
- an increase in body temperature prior to somatic death.
Commonly found in infectious diseases.
Speeds the rate of rigor mortis and decomposition.
Blood changes - ante mortem
the settling of blood and/or other fluids to the dependent portions of the body.
(clots) congealing of the blood
Moisture changes - ante mortem
the escape of blood serum from an intravascular (inside the vein) to an extravascular location immediately before death.
There is an increase in moisture in the tissues and cavities.
Which results from capillary expansion.
Therefore, it speeds the decomposition process.
If agonal edema is present, how will this affect the strength of your diluted arterial fluid?
Increase strength of the arterial solution.
the loss of moisture from the human body prior to somatic death.
Could result in the thickening of the blood and dehydration of certain tissue.
The movement of microorganisms from one area of the body to another.
An example is from the intestinal area to the blood vascular system due to capillary permeability changes.
It occurs as organisms normally confined to a specific area of the body by natural body defenses are able to move as the body loses its ability to keep them in check. The movement may be the results of the organism.
(1) Having natural motility, (2) entering the blood stream and circulating to other parts of the body, or (3) gravitating to other parts of the body during hypostasis or shift in tissue moisture.
translocation of microorganisms
a type of gas in tissues--
It has no odor, no skin slip; rises to highest body areas; can create intense swelling.
Results from the puncture of the lungs or pleural sac.
Seen in cardiopulmonary resuscitation treatments; puncture wounds to the thorax; rib fractures
Antemortem (prior to death) Subcutaneous emphysema
Treatments in the embalming aspects for gas in tissues include
channel tissue after arterial injection to release gas. Establish good arterial preservation.
The gas may escape through incision in the anterior cervical triangle, but it will not spread to other bodies
A series of physical and chemical changes that occur between the period of somatic death and embalming
post mortem interval
The ________ the time between death and embalming, the ______ changes will occur:
changes in form of state of matter w/o any change in chemical composition.
post mortem physical changes
the cooling of the body. Post mortem cooling of the body to the surrounding temperature
The internal organs will cool ______ than the surface tissue
Intrinsic factors (within the body) influencing the rate of algor mortis
Cause of death
(the amount of adipose tissue)
why is age an intrinsic factor influencing the rate of algor mortis?
a child will cool faster than an adult. Also because of less adipose tissue
febrile diseases (fever) will _____the onset of rate of algor mortis
wasting diseases (cancer) can _____ the onset of rate of algor mortis
Extrinsic factors (outside the body) influencing the rate of algor mortis
The amount of clothing covering the body.
The temperature and humidity.
Embalming influence - cooling of the body will slow the onset of decomposition. (this is the reason for refrigeration)
can also occur post mortem. A reason for elevating of the head and feet during embalming.
Because of an increase of moisture, bacterial activity could be high. Why?
because of a warm moist environment increases bacteria activity
Increase moisture will _________ the preservative demands for body regions in which hypostasis had occurred
Hypostatis will cause this. It is the settling of blood brings a discoloration that appears with 1/2 to 2 hours after death. This is a post-mortem intravascular blood discoloration that occurs as a result of hypostasis. Known as post- mortem lividity or cadaveric lividity. The discoloration may first be noticed as a dull reddish patches. As it becomes more established, it can take on a deep reddish-blue appearance. This occurs within the blood vascular system.
Can liver mortis be removed with normal arterial injection and venous drainage? Yes/No Why?
because it's intravascular
At death blood will shift to the _________ of the vascular system. During embalming it is the exception to find blood in the _______ when opened.
also known as dessication - The loss of moisture or removal of water from the dead human body.
The main cause of dehydration is either:
Primary cause of dehydration because of air movement over the body causes the loss of moisture.
(in particular the hands and face, lips, ears, and eye lids loose moisture the fastest. The reason to put moisturizer on the face and cover.)
Why would embalming chemicals be a cause of dehydration?
they are a dehydrating chemicals
the gravitation of fluid
What are the ante mortem (agonal) changes that were discussed for this exam?
trans location of microorganisms
gases in tissues
What are the post mortem physical changes?
increase in viscosity
in reference to corpulence: the larger individuals cool _______; thin individuals cool ______ because of _____________
adipose tissue (fat).
What is the reason for refrigeration?
to slow down the onset of decomposition
the increase in viscosity or thickness of blood, will result in?
the formation of blood clots
types of clots which form after death due to location of blood or increased viscosity of blood. They are usually easily removed in embalming
post mortem clots
a type of post mortem clot- they are long, dark red and stringy (look like currant jelly) - Fast forming and most common
Currant jelly clots
a type of post mortem clot- Slow in forming. Usually small and yellow in color formed after death. Usually more will be present in sudden death
Chicken fat clots
The (swelling of tissue) absorption of the fluid portion of blood by the tissues after death resulting in post mortem edema, excess fluid. Seen primarily in the organs of the body.
Imbibition - To imbibe
Post Mortem cooling of the body slows the onset of rigor mortis and decomposition. Helps keep the blood in a liquid state
responsible for livor mortis and later can cause post mortem stain. It also increases tissue moisture in dependent tissue
causes a discoloration intravascular which possibly can be cleared up with normal arterial injection and venous drainage. It can also expand the capillaries. The fluid in the body gravitates as a result of hypostasis into the dependent parts causing discoloration because of an excessive amount of fluid. It has filled up the capillaries causing them to expand which will allow the fluid (mostly blood) to escape from inside the vessels (intravascular) to outside (extravascular) the vessels into the capillaries. Once outside the vessels (extravascular), it can cause post mortem stain and also cause edema (excess moisture).
accompanied by increased blood viscosity. This forms blood clots. This darkens the skin surface and cannot be bleached. It also causes wrinkling and shriveling of the features. if extreme enough, can retard decomposition and preserve the body, but you have a bad restorative problem.
Increase in blood viscosity does what? .and also Increases resistance to arterial injection and hampers drainage.
thickens the blood and coagulation
changes which occur in the body after death, which also result in a change in chemical composition.
Post mortem chemical changes
What are the post mortem chemical changes?
Post mortem stain
Post mortem caloricity
Change in pH
an extravascular color change that occurs when heme, released by hemoglobin of red blood cells, seeps through the vessel walls and into the tissue. The blood is breaking down and decomposing which begins within 6 to 10 hours. This cannot be removed because it is extravascular. results from hemolysis (blood break down) specifically, the red blood cells.
Post mortem stain
the destruction or bursting of red blood cells that liberates hemoglobin. begins approximately 6 - 10 hours after death (post mortem cellular death). Since post mortem stain is extravascular, it generally will not be removed with normal arterial injection and venous drainage.
What can you do to eliminate having to use a lot of opaque cosmetics on post mortem stain?
Post mortem stain may be bleached (with bleaching agents) as a form of treatment (cavity fluid or phenol placed on the affected area.)
most permanent blood discoloration that we, as embalmers face
Post mortem stain
The slight rise in the body temperature following somatic death. Results from continued cellular metabolism after somatic death. This occurs until the entire oxygen supply is used. Usually, found in cases of sudden death – heat is continually produced after death by metabolism of food products in tissues. Various methods of cooling the body, such as circulation have stopped. Therefore, heat accumulates & body temperature rises.
Post mortem caloricity
The post mortem, temporary, stiffening of the body muscles due to a natural chemical body process. (*NB define: Post mortem stiffening of body muscles by natural body process).
marks the end of muscle cell life. Generally appears in the average body 2 to 4 hours after death
the complete muscular relaxation
the relaxation of the muscles immediately after somatic death. (Dead less than 4 hours)
Primary flaccidity (flaccid / soft)
the relaxation of the muscles after rigor mortis passes in an unembalmed body when the body relaxes for the second time. (Dead more than 4 hours) The pH has gone from lowest reading of 5 back to normal alkaline side.
*****Since rigor mortis, is defined as postmortem stiffening of body due to changes in ph. Maximum rigidity for rigor mortis would be ? on pH scale.
Order of appearance and disappearance of rigor mortis:
1. Eyes 2. Face 3. Neck 4. Upper extremities 5. Trunk 6. Lower extremities
Rigor mortis will leave in the same order.
PHYSICAL METHODS OF REDUCING RIGOR MORTIS
Flexing the fingers, wrists, arms, and legs.
Extending the arms and legs.
Rotating the jaw and neck to loosen the muscles.
Massaging- bathing and massage the body prior to embalming.
Rigor mortis - Influence on embalming
May be difficult in establishing a position of the body.
May be difficult in posing the features. Gives a false sign of preserved tissue.
May restrict fluid distribution - because arteries are surrounded by muscles which are restricted because of rigor mortis.
The (acidic or alkaline ???) pH does not provide a good medium for reaction with the arterial fluid after secondary flaccidity preservative demand increases.
Initial softness of the remains after death
pH has gone from lowest reading of 5 back to normal alkaline side.
The order of rigor would be
primary flaccidity, maximum rigidity, and secondary flaccidity
Muscle in which rigor mortis is present will not decompose. Why?
The acid present inhibits bacterial activity. Rigor mortis causes the body to be more acidic which kill bacteria. Bacteria likes a slightly alkaline pH.
0-7 on pH scale
7-14 on pH scale
Normal pH of the blood and tissue of the body
After death, lactic acid begins to accumulate in the muscle tissue (results in rigor mortis). The pH will drop to an acid level of 6 or below. As protein breaks down (decomposition), there is a gradual buildup in the tissue of nitrogen products such as ammonia. When decomposition occurs, the body goes to the acidic.
The ammonia neutralizes the acids in the tissue. Therefore, the pH of the tissues becomes alkaline above 7. Because the ammonia present acts to neutralize formaldehyde, there is a greater preservative demand during decomposition. A greater strength of formaldehyde may be needed.
Separation of compounds into simpler compounds substances by the action of microbial and/or autolytic enzymes
Types of decomposition.
decomposition or breaking down of any type of protein (prote-protein) (olysis- decomposition). Can occur in either the presence or absence of oxygen
decomposition of proteins by action of enzymes from anaerobic (absence of free oxygen) bacteria. This form was named for the horrific smell that makes you puck. This form of proteolysis advances much quicker than the form in the presence of oxygen.
decomposition of proteins by enzymes of aerobic (the presence of free oxygen) bacteria
The decomposition of fats (lipoi-fats) (olysis-decomposition). This will not have an effect on embalming. One substance formed as a result is adipocere (grave wax).
begins within days of death and becomes visible in about 3 months. results from lipolysis - decomposition of fats
the bacterial decomposition of carbohydrates. The carbohydrates are breaking down.
the decomposition of sugars
For testing purposes the definition to use is the following: The splitting or tearing apart of compounds by the addition of water. This the key method in which decomposition occurs. (This is the definition on the slide--- A reaction in which water is one of the reactants and compounds are often broken down.)
self destruction of cells; decomposition of all tissues by enzymes of their own formation without microbial assistance.
(cell organelle that contains digestive enzymes) in autolysis.
When the pH of the tissue becomes acidic, what does it do? (associated with hydrolysis). In the presence of water, the released enzymes begin to digest ___________, __________, and ________
it causes the lysosomes to rupture
carbohydrates, protein, and fats.
Signs of decomposition:
Accumulation of gas
Desquamation (skin slip)
first external sign of decomposition is
color change over the lower quadrant of the abdomen.
the odor of decomposition is ?
the post mortem evacuation of any substance from an external body orifice as a result of pressure.
in decomposition, there will be an accumulation of gas where?
viscera, cavities and other body tissue.
a separation of the epidermis from the underlying dermis, resulting in a sloughing of the epidermis.
Desquamation (skin slip)
the building blocks of proteins
the building blocks of fats
carbohydrates break down into?
(monosaccharide, polysaccharide, disaccharide)
results from the breaking down of amino acids (initial breaking down of protein) within the intestinal tract
types of ptomaines produced
type of ptomaine produced that causes a terrible putrid odor
type of ptomaine produced which is the smell from dead unembalmed bodies
End products of decomposition: (last or end products of decomposition)
Carbon dioxide – waste gases
Methane – marsh or swamp gas
Phosphoric acid – element phosphorus
if there is a strong smell of urine, the arterial fluid strength must be __________. Why?
Nitrogen weakens arterial fluid
Order of decomposition of body compounds.
Carbohydrates - fermentation
Protein - Putrefaction
Fats - lypolisis
Bones - longest to decompose, if at all.
regardless of age or sex, the first organs to decompose would be?
the lining membrane of the trachea and larynx, except for the brain of an infant and the pregnant uterus
last organs to decompose
Non-pregnant uterus or large blood vessels
intrinsic Factors governing decomposition
Cause and manner of death -
Amount of bacteria present in and on the body.
A heavy person will decompose _____ than thin persons.
a body with infectious diseases will decompose?
young adults and adults would decompose _______ than infants and elderly.
extrinsic factors governing decomposition
Bacterial and parasitic activity- not on the body, but attracted to the odor of the decomposed, unembalmed body. Organisms that contain their food from dead organic matter
Vermin including maggots, lice, and rats.
optimum temperature for bacteria growth.
minimum temperature for bacteria growth
maximum temperature for bacteria growth
Body coolers should be set about (how many degrees). this will retard, but not stop decomposition
what happens when the temperature exceeds 120 F
the body is destroyed
warm moist air will _________ decomposition.
Could agonal edema and agonal dehydration occur at approximately the same time in the same body?
Yes, one area may become edematous because of moisture that has left, or dehydrated, another area.