2nd QUARTER- ANATOMY 2 Exam 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2nd QUARTER- ANATOMY 2 Exam 3 Deck (83):
1

The space between the lungs where the heart and great blood vessels is housed.

Mediastinum

2

Referring exclusive to the upper chambers of the human heart

atria

3

A single upper chamber of the human heart

atrium

4

four (4) distinct chambers of the heart

Right Atrium -
Left Atrium -
Right Ventricle -
Left Ventricle-

5

The upper right chamber of the heart

right atrium

6

The upper left chamber of the heart

left atrium

7

The lower right chamber of the heart

right ventricle

8

The lower left chamber of the heart

left ventricle

9

the natural opening present between the upper chambers of the fetal heart. Allows the fetal lungs to develop

foramen ovale

10

the oval shaped shallow depression best seen in the right atrium of an adult heart. This is formed where the foramen ovale used to be located.

fossa ovalis

11

two lower chambers of the human heart. They are larger in capacity than the upper chambers

ventricles

12

Two structures only found in the ventricles of the heart:

Papillary muscles -
Chordae tendineae -

13

finger like muscles only found within the ventricles of the heart. Used to regulate or control specific heart valves.

papillary muscles

14

look like little pieces of string called tendious cords. Attach papillary muscles to individual sections (cusps) of the heart valve which they control.

chordae tendineae

15

individual sections of a human heart valve

cusps

16

four major valves in the heart

Tricuspid valve -
Pulmonary (semilunar) valve -
Bicuspid (Mitral) Valve -
Aortic (semilunar) valve -

17

consist of 3 distinct sections or cusps - control the opening between the right atrium and right ventricle. Regulated or controlled by papillary muscles and chordae tendineae which are only found in the right ventricle of the heart.

tricuspid valve

18

consist of 3 distinct sections or cusps. Controls the opening between the right ventricle and the pulmonary trunk.
Relies on backflow of blood to fill up the cusps to prevent it from going back into the chamber.

pulmonary (semilunar) valve

19

the only heart valve that consists of two distinct sections or cusps. Controls the opening between the left atrium and left ventricle. The papillary muscles and chordae tendineae controls this valve and are only located in the left ventricle of the lower chamber of the heart.

bicuspid (mitral) valve

20

consists of three distinct cusps or sections. Controls the opening between the left ventricle and the aorta. Similar to the pulmonary (semilunar) valve, it relies on the backflow of blood to fill up the three cusps of this opening and close the valve.

aortic (semilunar) valve

21

Which two heart valves are controlled by papillary muscles and chordae tendineae?

Tricuspid valve
Bicuspid (Mitral) Valve

22

Layers in the walls of the heart (innermost to outermost).

Endocardium – .
Myocardium -
Pericardium – (peri- around)


23

the innermost layer of the heart. This is the layer in which the heart valves are made. Makes up the cusps of the heart valve

endocardium

24

the muscle layer of the heart. It is thickest in the left ventricle. The last chamber to receive oxygenated blood from the heart to the entire body.

myocardium

25

the sack surrounding the heart.

pericardium

26

two types of pericardium

visceral pericardium
parietal pericardium

27

that part of the pericardium directly attached to the heart

visceral pericardium

28

outermost layer of the heart and the layer of the pericardium closest to the body wall.

parietal pericardium

29

second largest vein in the human body. It will eventually drain any blood coming from the head, neck, upper extremities, and thoracic region.

superior vena cava

30

the largest vein in the human body. It eventually drains blood from the lower extremities and abdomen

inferior vena cava

31

is the key chamber to establish drainage in embalming.

right atrium

32

the large vein which drains blood from the heart itself

coronary sinus

33

carry blood high in oxygen away from the heart of a living human. They become smaller away from the heart

arteries

34

start small and become larger closer to the heart. carries blood low in oxygen toward the heart.

veins

35

- the opening of the superior vena cava (the angle it enters the right atrium of the heart - superiorly or top) (SVC) directly into the right atrium of the heart.

superior vena cava orifice

36

(Angle it enters the right atrium of the heart - inferiorly or bottom). The opening of the inferior vena cava (IVC) directly into the right atrium of the heart

inferior vena cava orifice

37

the opening located between the right atrium and right ventricle. In turn controlled by the tricuspid valve

Right atrioventricular orifice

38

the opening located between the left atrium and left ventricle. Only controlled by the bicuspid or mitral valve

Left atrioventricular orifice

39

the opening of the coronary sinus directly into the right atrium of the heart.

Coronary sinus orifice

40

the four opening of the pulmonary veins directly into the atrium of the heart.

Pulmonary vein orifices

41

the opening located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary trunk.

Pulmonary trunk orifice

42

the opening between the left ventricle and the aorta (the largest artery in the human body)

Aortic orifice

43

right ventricle and left atrium- the two way exchange of blood between the heart and the lungs

pulmonary circulation

44

The only two chambers of the heart involved in pulmonary circulation are the ______ and the __________
The _________ is the chamber of the heart in which pulmonary circulation begins. The__________ is where pulmonary circulation ends.

right ventricle
left atrium
right ventricle
left atrium

45

left ventricle and right atrium- the two way exchange between the heart and the rest of the body except for the lungs

Systemic circulation

46

The only two chambers involved in systemic circulation are the ________ and the ________.
The__________ of the heart is where systemic circulation begins. The _________ is where systemic circulation ends.
Systemic circulation would include a study of an openings of the heart valves, orifices of the heart, an arteries or veins of the body that are involved in this two way exchange of blood and the body, EXCEPT THE LUNGS

left ventricle
right atrium
left ventricle
right atrium

47

oval shaped opening naturally present between the atria or upper chambers of the fetal heart

foramen ovale

48

oval shaped shallow depression of the heart, best seen in the right atrium of the adult heart. These changes need to occur shortly after birth.

fossa ovalis

49

- a passageway for blood, located between the pulmonary trunk and the aorta, in fetal circulation. Designed to shunt or bypass shipment to the fetal lungs

Ductus arteriosus

50

adult counterpart structure of ductus arteriosus. It should turn into a ligament shortly after birth. It shouldn’t carry blood after you are born

ligamentum arteriosum

51

A single vein present in fetal circulation designed to shunt or bypass shipment of blood the fetal liver

Ductus venosus

52

is the adult counterpart structure of the ductus venosus. It should turn a ligament shortly after birth

Ligamentum venosus

53

two arteries of fetal circulation that carry blood low in oxygen and high in waste products from the fetus to the placenta

umbilical arteries

54

– the adult counterpart of the two umbilical arteries.

Lateral umbilical ligaments

55

the single vein which conveys blood high in oxygen and useable food substances from the placenta to the fetus

Umbilical vein

56

the adult counterpart of the umbilical vein

Ligamentum teres of the liver

57

Layers of Blood vessels (Arteries) -Outer most to inner most

Tunica adventitia (tunica externa)
Tunica media (muscle layer)
Tunica intima (interna) .

58

outer most layer of the three layers (elastic tissue) of blood vessels. Function is to allow the embalmer to stretch the vessel to the surface.

Tunica adventitia (tunica externa)

59

middle layer of a three layer blood vessel. Known as smooth (visceral) muscles. Allow for shipment of blood.

Tunica media (muscle layer)

60

inner most layer. The only layer continuous, which means it is found in every blood vessel of the human body

Tunica intima (interna)

61

a three layered blood vessels that carries blood HIGH in oxygen away from the heart of a living person.

artery

62

As arteries move away from the heart they lose which layer?

tunica adventitia layer

63

(tiny arteries) - a two layer blood vessel carrying blood away from the heart of a living person. Only contains tunica media and tunica intima

Arteriole

64

As the artery continues to move away from the heart the next (2nd) layer lost is?

tunica media (muscle layer)

65

a single layered blood vessel. Only contains tunica intima

It is at this point that the arterial portion of the blood vascular system unites with the venous portion of the blood vascular system and the process reverse.

In Reverse - The tunica media (muscle layer) reappears

capillary

66

(a tiny vein) -two layered blood vessel carrying blood toward the heart of a living person.

The Tunica adventitia (externa) then reappears

venule

67

three layered blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart of a living person

veins

68

Layers making up a vein are ________ than that of an artery.

thinner

69

The capillary level is where life occurs. The walls are so thin blood has to line up to pass.

Veins are the suction side as blood moves toward the heart of a living person. Veins start small and as the venule or tunica media (muscle layer) reappears, it leaves a two layer vein carrying blood to the heart. As blood continues, the tunica intima (interna), third layer, or vein reappears carrying blood toward the heart of a living person. Layers of a vein are thinner and can be ruptured more easily. 85% of blood shifts to the venous side of the body following death. Veins are equipped with valves to prevent the back flow of blood going towards the heart of a living person from going to the lowest point to prevent the back flow.

--

70

blood vessels that feed the outer layers of arteries, arterioles, veins, and venules. This is the red squiggly line found on blood vessels by which to differentiate an artery from a nerve.

Vasa vasdrum

71

alternate (secondary) route of blood flow

Collateral circulation

72

normal blood pressure

120/80

73

top number of a blood pressure reading. the contraction phase of the cardiac cycle. Contraction of the ventricles

systole
(systolic pressure)

74

bottom number of a blood pressure reading. the resting phase of the cardiac cycle. Contraction of the two small atria (upper chambers)

diastole
(diastolic pressure)

75

low in oxygen blood; most important in embalming to establish and maintain drainage.

right atrium

76

receives blood from the lungs

left atrium

77

pumps unoxygenated blood to the lungs to pick up oxygen

right ventricle

78

largest and strongest muscle of the heart; last pump of blood with oxygen to the body via arteries

left ventricle

79

venous side; blood low in oxygen

right side

80

artery side; blood high in oxygen

left side

81

Large artery which first ships blood low in oxygen from the heart toward the lungs

pulmonary trunk

82

the largest artery in the human body.

aorta

83

The plural cavity only surrounds the

lungs