Flashcards in 2nd QUARTER- ANATOMY 2 Exam 3 Deck (83):
The space between the lungs where the heart and great blood vessels is housed.
Referring exclusive to the upper chambers of the human heart
A single upper chamber of the human heart
four (4) distinct chambers of the heart
Right Atrium -
Left Atrium -
Right Ventricle -
The upper right chamber of the heart
The upper left chamber of the heart
The lower right chamber of the heart
The lower left chamber of the heart
the natural opening present between the upper chambers of the fetal heart. Allows the fetal lungs to develop
the oval shaped shallow depression best seen in the right atrium of an adult heart. This is formed where the foramen ovale used to be located.
two lower chambers of the human heart. They are larger in capacity than the upper chambers
Two structures only found in the ventricles of the heart:
Papillary muscles -
Chordae tendineae -
finger like muscles only found within the ventricles of the heart. Used to regulate or control specific heart valves.
look like little pieces of string called tendious cords. Attach papillary muscles to individual sections (cusps) of the heart valve which they control.
individual sections of a human heart valve
four major valves in the heart
Tricuspid valve -
Pulmonary (semilunar) valve -
Bicuspid (Mitral) Valve -
Aortic (semilunar) valve -
consist of 3 distinct sections or cusps - control the opening between the right atrium and right ventricle. Regulated or controlled by papillary muscles and chordae tendineae which are only found in the right ventricle of the heart.
consist of 3 distinct sections or cusps. Controls the opening between the right ventricle and the pulmonary trunk.
Relies on backflow of blood to fill up the cusps to prevent it from going back into the chamber.
pulmonary (semilunar) valve
the only heart valve that consists of two distinct sections or cusps. Controls the opening between the left atrium and left ventricle. The papillary muscles and chordae tendineae controls this valve and are only located in the left ventricle of the lower chamber of the heart.
bicuspid (mitral) valve
consists of three distinct cusps or sections. Controls the opening between the left ventricle and the aorta. Similar to the pulmonary (semilunar) valve, it relies on the backflow of blood to fill up the three cusps of this opening and close the valve.
aortic (semilunar) valve
Which two heart valves are controlled by papillary muscles and chordae tendineae?
Bicuspid (Mitral) Valve
Layers in the walls of the heart (innermost to outermost).
Endocardium – .
Pericardium – (peri- around)
the innermost layer of the heart. This is the layer in which the heart valves are made. Makes up the cusps of the heart valve
the muscle layer of the heart. It is thickest in the left ventricle. The last chamber to receive oxygenated blood from the heart to the entire body.
the sack surrounding the heart.
two types of pericardium
that part of the pericardium directly attached to the heart
outermost layer of the heart and the layer of the pericardium closest to the body wall.
second largest vein in the human body. It will eventually drain any blood coming from the head, neck, upper extremities, and thoracic region.
superior vena cava
the largest vein in the human body. It eventually drains blood from the lower extremities and abdomen
inferior vena cava
is the key chamber to establish drainage in embalming.
the large vein which drains blood from the heart itself
carry blood high in oxygen away from the heart of a living human. They become smaller away from the heart
start small and become larger closer to the heart. carries blood low in oxygen toward the heart.
- the opening of the superior vena cava (the angle it enters the right atrium of the heart - superiorly or top) (SVC) directly into the right atrium of the heart.
superior vena cava orifice
(Angle it enters the right atrium of the heart - inferiorly or bottom). The opening of the inferior vena cava (IVC) directly into the right atrium of the heart
inferior vena cava orifice
the opening located between the right atrium and right ventricle. In turn controlled by the tricuspid valve
Right atrioventricular orifice
the opening located between the left atrium and left ventricle. Only controlled by the bicuspid or mitral valve
Left atrioventricular orifice
the opening of the coronary sinus directly into the right atrium of the heart.
Coronary sinus orifice
the four opening of the pulmonary veins directly into the atrium of the heart.
Pulmonary vein orifices
the opening located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary trunk.
Pulmonary trunk orifice
the opening between the left ventricle and the aorta (the largest artery in the human body)
right ventricle and left atrium- the two way exchange of blood between the heart and the lungs
The only two chambers of the heart involved in pulmonary circulation are the ______ and the __________
The _________ is the chamber of the heart in which pulmonary circulation begins. The__________ is where pulmonary circulation ends.
left ventricle and right atrium- the two way exchange between the heart and the rest of the body except for the lungs
The only two chambers involved in systemic circulation are the ________ and the ________.
The__________ of the heart is where systemic circulation begins. The _________ is where systemic circulation ends.
Systemic circulation would include a study of an openings of the heart valves, orifices of the heart, an arteries or veins of the body that are involved in this two way exchange of blood and the body, EXCEPT THE LUNGS
oval shaped opening naturally present between the atria or upper chambers of the fetal heart
oval shaped shallow depression of the heart, best seen in the right atrium of the adult heart. These changes need to occur shortly after birth.
- a passageway for blood, located between the pulmonary trunk and the aorta, in fetal circulation. Designed to shunt or bypass shipment to the fetal lungs
adult counterpart structure of ductus arteriosus. It should turn into a ligament shortly after birth. It shouldn’t carry blood after you are born
A single vein present in fetal circulation designed to shunt or bypass shipment of blood the fetal liver
is the adult counterpart structure of the ductus venosus. It should turn a ligament shortly after birth
two arteries of fetal circulation that carry blood low in oxygen and high in waste products from the fetus to the placenta
– the adult counterpart of the two umbilical arteries.
Lateral umbilical ligaments
the single vein which conveys blood high in oxygen and useable food substances from the placenta to the fetus
the adult counterpart of the umbilical vein
Ligamentum teres of the liver
Layers of Blood vessels (Arteries) -Outer most to inner most
Tunica adventitia (tunica externa)
Tunica media (muscle layer)
Tunica intima (interna) .
outer most layer of the three layers (elastic tissue) of blood vessels. Function is to allow the embalmer to stretch the vessel to the surface.
Tunica adventitia (tunica externa)
middle layer of a three layer blood vessel. Known as smooth (visceral) muscles. Allow for shipment of blood.
Tunica media (muscle layer)
inner most layer. The only layer continuous, which means it is found in every blood vessel of the human body
Tunica intima (interna)
a three layered blood vessels that carries blood HIGH in oxygen away from the heart of a living person.
As arteries move away from the heart they lose which layer?
tunica adventitia layer
(tiny arteries) - a two layer blood vessel carrying blood away from the heart of a living person. Only contains tunica media and tunica intima
As the artery continues to move away from the heart the next (2nd) layer lost is?
tunica media (muscle layer)
a single layered blood vessel. Only contains tunica intima
It is at this point that the arterial portion of the blood vascular system unites with the venous portion of the blood vascular system and the process reverse.
In Reverse - The tunica media (muscle layer) reappears
(a tiny vein) -two layered blood vessel carrying blood toward the heart of a living person.
The Tunica adventitia (externa) then reappears
three layered blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart of a living person
Layers making up a vein are ________ than that of an artery.
The capillary level is where life occurs. The walls are so thin blood has to line up to pass.
Veins are the suction side as blood moves toward the heart of a living person. Veins start small and as the venule or tunica media (muscle layer) reappears, it leaves a two layer vein carrying blood to the heart. As blood continues, the tunica intima (interna), third layer, or vein reappears carrying blood toward the heart of a living person. Layers of a vein are thinner and can be ruptured more easily. 85% of blood shifts to the venous side of the body following death. Veins are equipped with valves to prevent the back flow of blood going towards the heart of a living person from going to the lowest point to prevent the back flow.
blood vessels that feed the outer layers of arteries, arterioles, veins, and venules. This is the red squiggly line found on blood vessels by which to differentiate an artery from a nerve.
alternate (secondary) route of blood flow
normal blood pressure
top number of a blood pressure reading. the contraction phase of the cardiac cycle. Contraction of the ventricles
bottom number of a blood pressure reading. the resting phase of the cardiac cycle. Contraction of the two small atria (upper chambers)
low in oxygen blood; most important in embalming to establish and maintain drainage.
receives blood from the lungs
pumps unoxygenated blood to the lungs to pick up oxygen
largest and strongest muscle of the heart; last pump of blood with oxygen to the body via arteries
venous side; blood low in oxygen
artery side; blood high in oxygen
Large artery which first ships blood low in oxygen from the heart toward the lungs
the largest artery in the human body.