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Osteology

The study of bones

1

Functions of the skeletal system

1. PROTECTION (rib cage, cranium, vertebrae)
2. STORAGE AREA (99% of CA is stored in the bones)
3. MOVEMENT (by means of tendons)
4. SUPPORT ( framework were the soft tissues & bones attach themselves)
5. HEMOPOESIS ( the formation of all cells in the blood)

2

Hemopoesis

The formation of all cells in the blood

3

How many bones make up the skeletal system?

206 in total, with the exception of :

Sutural (WORMIAN) bones
And
Sesamoid bones

4

Sutural bones

"WORMIAN"

Are small irregular shaped bones that sometimes form along the line of fusion of the cranial bones

5

Sesamoid Bones

Any bone embedded in the tendon of a muscle

6

Axial Skeleton

Consists of 80 bones out of the 206 that make up the skeletal system

7

Skull

Consists of 28 bones of the 206 bones found in the skeletal system

Houses the organs of sight and the brain

8

Cranium

Consist of 8 distinct bones that fuses together to protect the brain

9

Face

Consists of 14 classified bones of the 206 bones of the skeletal system

10

Auditory Ossicles

"Ear Bones"

6 bones in total

11

Hyoid

Horseshoe shaped single bone located between the middle of the lower jaw and the voice box

12

Vertebrae

26 bones that make up the adult spinal column.

Houses the spinal cord

13

Sternum

"Breast Bone"

1 bone in total

14

Ribs

Consists of 24 individual bones
Or
12 pairs

15

Appendicular Skeleton

Consists of 126 of the 206 Bones that make up the skeletal system

16

Upper extremities & Pectoral Joint
(appendages & shoulder joints)

Consists of 64 bones

17

Lower extremities & Pelvic Girdle
(appendages & hip joints)

Consists of 62 bones

18

Frontal Bone

"Fore head bone"

1 bone

19

Supraorbital Margin

"Orbital Cavity"

Superior boundary of the eye sockets

20

Superciliary Arches

Prominent ridge off the frontal bone, located posterior to the eye brows or "supercillia"

21

Glabella

Slight elevation located at the medial ends of the superciliary arches.

Middle of the eye brows

22

Frontal eminences

Two rounded protuberances which give roundness and fullness to the forehead

23

Frontal air sinuses

Air spaces of the forehead

24

Parietal Bones

Forms the roof and sides of the cranial vault

25

Occipital Bone

Bone in which the brain stem passes

Base of the cranial vault

26

Foramen Magnum

Large opening on the occipital bone through which the spinal cord passes

27

Occipital Condyles

Two prominences off the occipital bone on both sides of the foramen magnum.

Only part of the skull that has direct contact with the spinal column.

Articulates with the 1st cervicle vertebrae

28

External Occipital Protuberance

"inion"
Single boney prominence on the base of the skull

Serves as a point of muscle attachment

29

Temporal Bones

Thickest bone in the left & right temple regions

Helps to form the sides if the cranial vault

30

Squamous Portion

"Squama"

Thin shell shaped upper portion of the temporal bone

31

Petrous Portion

Part of each temporal bone that projects into the cranial cavity

32

3 Auditory Ossicles

Malleus "HAMMER"

Incus "ANVIL"

Stapes "STIRRUP"

33

Carotid Canal

Passageways through each temporal bone through which the internal carotid arteries pass

34

Mastoid Portion - Air Cells

Massive part of the temporal bone located directly behind the ear

35

Mandibular Fossa

Two shallow depressions off the temporal bone through which the mandible or lower jaw articulates

36

External Auditory Meatus

Passageway through the temporal bone through which sound waves initially pass

37

Zygomatic Process

Is the boney projection off each temporal bone which goes anteriorly or to the front.

Forms the widest part of the face

38

Sphenoid Bone

Bat shaped bone inside the skull

Helps to form the middle cranial fossa

39

Stella Turcica

"Turkish Saddle"

Shallow depression in the sphenoid bone

Houses and protects the pituitary gland

40

Sphenoid Air Sinuses

Air sinuses in the sphenoid bone

41

Ethmoid Bone

Made up of 8 bones

Thin line inside the nose

Single thin and delicate bone of the cranium

Helps to form the boney structure of the nasal septum

42

Cribriform Plate

The most superior horizontal portion of the ethmoid bone

Separates the 2 nasal cavities from the cranial cavity

43

Crista Galli

Short vertical portion of the ethmoid bone that projects into the cranial cavity

44

Perpendicular Plate

Long vertical portion located beneath the cribriform plate

45

Ethmoid Air Sinuses

Air sinuses located in the ethmoid bone

46

Nasal Bones

Two small rectangular bone of the face that forms the bridge of the nose

47

Lacrimal Bones

"Eye Sockets"

Paired fingernail shaped bones of the face which forms the medial boundaries of the orbital cavities

48

Vomer Bone

Single or unpaired bone of the face

Helps to form the the boney structure of the nasal septum

49

Palatine Bones

2 "L" shaped bones of the face that helps to from the posterior portion of the hard palate

50

Maxillary Process

The horizontal portion of each palatine bone which forms the posterior portion of the hard palate

51

Zygomatic Bones

"Malar" of "Cheek Bones"

Makes up the lateral boundaries of the eye sockets

52

Temporal processes

Boney projections of each zygomatic bone which runs posteriorly.

Unites with the zygomatic process of the temporal bone.

Forms the zygomatic arch "the widest part of the face"

53

Inferior nasal conchae

Most inferior part of the 3 pairs of conchaes

54

Maxillae

"upper jaw"

2 bones that form the upper jaw

55

Maxillary Air Sinuses

"Antrum of Highmore"

Air spaces in the upper jaw

56

Alveolar Process

"Tooth sockets"

The spaces where the teeth are housed

57

Palatine process

The horizontal part of the maxillae that forms the hard portion of the hard palate

58

Mandible

"lower jaw"

Second example of of the impaired bone of the face

Only movable bone of the face

59

Ramus

"camel shaped"


The vertical portion on both sides of the lower jaw

60

Angle

Point at which each ramus unites with the body

61

Mandible Body

The flat part of the lower jaw portion

The largest portion of the lower jaw

62

Mental Protuberance

"chin"


Slight elevation on the front of the mandible

63

Sternum

"breast bone"

Single bone of the rib cage

Serves as the anterior point of attachment for the first 10 pair of ribs

64

Manubrium

Most superior segment of the breast bone

Characterized by 3 notches

65

Sternum Body

Largest part of the sternum

66

Zyphoid Process

"hangy down part"

Most inferior segment of the breast bone

67

How many ribs are there?

12 pair

Or

24 individual

68

True ribs

First 7 pairs of ribs directly attached to the costal cartilage and breast bone

69

False ribs

Rib pairs 8-12 the costal cartilage IF PRESENT does not directly attach to the breast bone

70

Floating ribs

Rib pairs 11-12 are the only ribs that do not have costal cartilage

71

Clavicle

"collar bones"

2 medial ends attaches to the breast bone

The lateral ends attaches to the scapula

72

Scapula

"shoulder bones"

Triangular shaped bone

73

Humerus

"arm bone"

Only bone located between the shoulder and elbow bones

74

Ulna

"forearm bone"

Largest and most medial bone of the forearm

75

Olecranon process

Ole C. Ranon

"elbow"

Is the boney projection located off the proximal end of the ulna

76

Radius

"forearm bone"

The most lateral bone and the smaller bone of the forearm

77

Carpal bones

Bones making up the wrist

8 in each wrist, 16 in total

78

Metacarpal bones

Bones located beyond the wrist bones

Makes up the palms of the hand

5 in each hand, 10 in total

79

Phalanges

"fingers & toes"

14 in each finger and toes, 28 in total

80

Os coxae

"hip bone"

3 separate bones

Ilium
Ischium
Pubis (pubic bone)

81

Ilium

Largest and most superior segment of the is coxae

The two ^ ^ or the top of the butterfly wings

82

Ischium

Most inferior segment of the os coxae

The two bottom butterfly wings

83

Pubis

"pubic bone"

Most anterior bone in the os coxae

84

Femur

"thigh bone"

The only bone found in the thigh region

Longest bone in the body

85

Patella

"knee cap"

Largest and only classified sesamoid bone of the skeleton

86

Tibia

"shin bone"

Largest and most medial bone in the leg

87

Medial malleolus

Boney prominence off the distal end of the tibia

Inside ankle bone

88

Fibula

Smaller and most lateral bone in the leg region

89

Lateral malleolus

Boney projection off the distal end of the fibula

Outside ankle bone

90

Tarsal Bones

"ankle bone"


7 present in each, 14 total

91

Metatarsal bones

Bones located beyond the ankle bones

Make up the arch of the foot

5 in each, 10 total

92

Arthrology

Treatment of joints

93

Synthrosis

Totally immovable parts

94

Cranial sutures

Skull fushions

95

Arising from fontanels

Soft spots

96

Sternocostal joint

Where the first 7 pair of costal cartilage joins the sternum

97

Amphiarthrosis

Slightly moveable joint

98

Pubic symphysis

Band of connective tissues which joins the pubic joints

99

Sacrosanct iliac articulation

Joint between the iliac and sacrum of the hip bone

100

Diarthrosis

Freely movable joints