Flashcards in 2nd Quarter- MORTUARY ADMINISTRATION Exam 4 Deck (126):
within a state – private carrier needs report of death
between states - private carrier needs burial transit permit
“Forwarding” funeral home prepares remains for transfer to “receiving” funeral home.
Within a state between two or more states
State laws dictate proper procedures
Preparation of remains
Unembalmed vs. embalmed
Casketed vs. uncasketed - Varies with circumstance of death
Family wishes / Method of transfer
Payment for service and merchandise
Arranged between forwarding and receiving funeral home.
Full payment by family
Cash advance item paid by receiving funeral home
Service and merchandise of “receiving” funeral home.
Varies with those provided by “forwarding” funeral home.
any carrier required by law to convey passengers or freight without refusal if approved fare or charge is paid. Airline, train, etc.
considerations for common carrier
Most require embalming / remains in sealed container
Use of appropriate transfer container
Check prior to transferring
Determine specific requirements / Where to take remains for departure
Retrieval at final destination / Cost and method of payment
those who transfer only in particular instances and only for those with whom they choose to contact.
Funeral home vehicles and livery.
Preparation of remains
Determined by various factors
Cause of death / Condition of body
Length of shipping time – Common or private carrier
Step to minimize shifting of remains
Appropriate transfer container
Ties and packing material
Steps to protect clothing and casket interior
Plastic around head and hands
Steps to minimize and prevent purge – ASPIRATE!!! ASPIRATE!!! ASPIRATE!!! Plastic around head.
Outer enclosure utilized for protection of body and/or casketed remains during transportation.
Transfer container consisting of a particle board box with a cardboard tray and covered to satisfy air shipping regulations. Transport the embalmed body.
Transfer container consisting of a wooden tray with cardboard covering for the casket.
Transport embalmed or un-embalmed body.
Gasket-sealed container which can be used as an insert into a casket or a separate shipping container.
can be used for un-embalmed bodies and floaters
when transferring gasketed caskets via commercial airlines what should you remember
Remove cap over sealing mechanism and place in the interior or the casket
Air pressure changes during takeoff and landing.
Casket will implode! Or collapse on its self from external pressure.
Paperwork and documentation for transfer of human remains
Burial-transit (disposition) permit
Certified copy of death certificate
Embalming report – required for TEXAS
Letter of guarantee – guaranteeing payment by forwarding funeral home when shipping ‘Collect’ by common carrier
Other paperwork required by law.
where should paperwork and documentation
it should be placed on outer surface of transfer container.
Name of decedent should be clearly visible.
Additional items placed inside the casket like -- Register book / prayer cards
return decedent to country of origin
Forwarding remains to another country
Notify consulate of receiving country.
They provide information regarding policies, procedures and paperwork.
Reference materials for foreign transfers: NFDA directory-- Red book--Blue book
Follow all customs regulations.
Comply with receiving country’s laws and rules.
Remember differences in time zones-- Time delays are common.
Translate documents and verbal communication into language of the receiving country.
Provide affidavit of “NO CONTAGIOUS DISEASES.” Varies from country to country, must be provided by doctor or country health official according to their requirements.
Receiving remains from another country.
U. S. citizen dies abroad.
Consular officer from nearest U. S. Embassy or Consulate notifies U. S. State Department to contact family or their representative.
Typically family is notified via cable (wired) message or telegram.
Serves as official notification of death.
Outlines options and costs of disposition.
Disposition of body must follow laws and customs of host country.
All costs paid by family of decedent.
U. S. Government funds not available.
U. S. State Department will assist with transmitting funds from family to Consular office
The Consular office will disperse funds, provide an accounting, and disperse unused monies.
U. S. style of embalming not practiced or required in most foreign countries.
Preparation must conform to local laws and customs.
Remains may not be suitable for viewing.
If no one assumes financial responsibility, the U. S. Consul requests local foreign authorities to make appropriate disposition; according to local laws and customs of host country.
sudden misfortune resulting in loss of life and/or property.
unforeseen combination of circumstances resulting in need for immediate action
Types of disasters
man made/ Human – responsible
Earthquakes “Acts of God”
Fires Transportation Crashes
Structural collapses Nuclear accidents
man made/ human responsible disasters
Effects of natural and human responsible events.
Airline crash during thunderstorm.
Disasters vary according to:
Time / Size and scope / Damage / Injury / Death
Disruption of family and community
Those directly involved – Residents, those who lost homes, other personal possessions from flood or earthquake.
a phenomenon experienced by survivors
“Why me?” “Why didn’t I die?”
Other potential victims
Those indirectly involved / surviving family member and friends.
Disaster responders / firemen, police officers / doctors / nurses / fun. Dir. / clergy.
Community where disaster occurred – students in school shootings, bombing in Ok City.
Requires strategic planning – extremely important
Organized care and preparation of deceased disaster victims.
involves funeral directors/embalmers
Other allied professionals
Certification of death – M.D.s / M.E.s, & JPs.
Registration of death – Funeral Director
Final disposition – Funeral Director / Cemeterian / Clergy
Physician, medical examiner (top dog in charge), coroner, and Justice of the Peace – Certify Death
Local registrar – death is registered by funeral director with the registrar and the burial transit permit is issued.
Clergy / FD / Cemeterian – carry out the final disposition
Any federally declared emergency situation
13 emergency support functions
Created the National Disaster Medical System (NDMS).
Federal Disaster Response Plan
One of the 13 emergency support functions
Established disaster mortuary operational response teams
NDMS purpose is to recover, identify, prepare, process and dispose of fatalities in disaster situations.
Under NDMS – Disaster Mortuary Operational Response Teams – DMORTs. Were established
National Disaster Medical Support (NDMS)
10 Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) districts in U.S.
Provide technical assistance
Personnel needed to recover, identify, process, prepare, and dispose of fatal victims.
Disaster mortuary operational response teams (D Mort)
25 primary responders with 100 team members.
Supervised by DMORT commander with unit coordinator.
Pre-registered federal employees covered under Federal Tort Act.
TORT ACT – maintain a mobile mortuary container depot oat Rockville, MD. These are self-sufficient morgues w/ 50 work stations, no charge to any disaster site in continental US.
Role of funeral service personnel
Provide support and assistance to DMORT team.
Follow direction of DMORT commander and unit coordinator.
Become trained member of a DMORT team.
Care for survivors - Protect disaster site for investigation.
Mark and record location of remains.
Debrief and counsel disaster workers.
Related to general concerns:
Communications Notification Identification
Federal, state, and local concerns
Jurisdiction over disaster area
Responsibility for disaster area
Who will pay?
administration of a funeral home enterprise
Funeral service management
Areas of management:
Primary objective of funeral home management is to
Fulfill needs of client families and community resulting from death.
Secondary objective of funeral home management is to
Ensure that funds are available to
Pay expenses, Provide reasonable return on investment (ROI) and Make capital improvements
“Overhead” (Cost of doing business)/Salaries/Building (maintenance of building and grounds)/Utilities / Supplies
Make profit/True for any business/Not a “four-letter word”
Return of investment (ROI)
putting money back in your business
Spending large sums of money for Building, Equipment, Furnishings, and Livery
Functions of management
(personal life & business) determining in advance what needs will be accomplished in order to achieve a particular goal
Steps in the planning process
Establish a mission statement / Set goals and objectives
Formulate strategy for meeting goals and objectives
What is the ultimate purpose of the funeral home business and the efforts of its employees? Typically, states the reasons for the organizations existence, products and services offered, clientele served, areas of specialization
(dreams to achieve) - Broad statement about what an organization wants to achieve.
Stated in general terms without reference to a time period (Not time specific)/ Motivational in nature.
Specific statements of tasks to be completed.
Specific or anticipated date(s) for completion.
Measurable to determine if objectives have been or are being met
an objective completed within one to five years
an objective completed in five years or longer
Strategy for achieving goals and objectives
How / When / Who / Where / What
For meeting established goals and objectives
Functions of management
Arranging and distributing work among members of an organization.
Coordinating how, when, and where actions will occur.
Coordinating group work (tasks) into logical patterns.
Guiding and supervising activities of an organization. Implementing and executing planned activities. Determining staff responsibilities
Comparing organizational and individual performance with predetermined standards or expected results.
Controlling and evaluating performance in terms of goals and objectives.
Reformulating goals and objectives as needed
“Let the seller beware.”
“Let the buyer beware.”
Client families and community –
(1) Funeral service management is more service than product orientated.
(2) Greater emphasis is placed on social responsibility and satisfying needs of client families.
(3) Funeral service management deals with a client - caregiver relationship rather than a strict “buyer-seller” relationship.
(4) Funeral service practice supports the management concept of “caveat venditor” “Let the seller beware.” Rather than “caveat emptor” “Let the buyer beware.”
(5) Funeral service management views the role of its practitioners with consumers as more personal, more advisory, and more confidential than do other managerial groups.
(6) Funeral service manager is obligated to provide all client families with knowledge and options to make informed choices.
(7) Responsibility of the funeral service manager often includes serving the total community while meeting particular needs of a client family.
(8) Funeral service manager has an obligation to assist those community education programs related to death, grief, bereavement, funeral rites, and recovery.
(9) In public relations, the funeral service manager has the responsibility to provide the type of advertising and informational programs that will reflect professionalism.
(10) Funeral service practice differs from other managerial areas in that total service of the firm should be available to those of every economic, social, and political circumstance.
Motivating people in organizations to develop team work which effectively fulfills their needs and achieves organizational objectives
Energizing, channeling & sustaining people’s beh
Who studied the theories of motivation
“Hierarchy of needs”
From lowest to highest
Belongingness and love
need for air, water, food and sex for procreation
need for safety, order, freedom, from fear or threat
the need for love, affection, feeling of belonging & human contact
Belongingness and love
need for self-respect, self-esteem, achievement & respect from others
need to grow, to feel fulfilled, to realize one’s potential
Workplace can fulfill different needs at each level. Fulfillment of needs by management should motivate individuals to be better employees
“Two factor theory” Man has two sets of needs
Frederick Herzberg –
Frederick Herzberg –
“Two factor theory”
1. Avoid pain and satisfy basic needs.
2. Achieve and experience psychological growth.
Factors related to job satisfaction
Motivators – intrinsic from within factors, facilitate, satisfaction, seek recognition, achievement, responsibility, advancement.
Hygiene – extrinsic (external, outside) – factors which facilitate dissatisfaction – company policy, supervisor, inadequate salary, working conditions in adequate.
Job satisfaction and dissatisfaction are separate dimensions.
Improving hygiene will make work more tolerable.
Enhancing motivators will increase job satisfaction and productivity.
“Theory X” “Theory Y”
theory that people are self-centered, lack ambition, and inherently dislike work. Most people have to be coerced, threatened with punishment to perform effectively. They avoid responsibility, seek security, lack creative ability and are resistance to change
theory that people enjoy work, will work toward organizational goals and objectives, and become committed based on rewards associated with achievement. Physical and mental effort in work is natural. These folks exercise self- direction & self-control in the service of objectives. Commitment to objectives is a function of the rewards associated with achievement. The average person learns, under proper conditioning to accept & seek responsibility. People have a higher degree of imagination & creativity
The theory adopted by management determines:
Level of motivation
what does the motivation process do
Determine objectives and purpose
Understand employee wants and needs
Communicate with employees
Integrate employee - firm interest
Provide auxiliary conditions
Everyone working together as members of a team.
Coordination of time, ability, and effort
Efforts of all members of an organization are directed to insure quality in production of goods and services.
Total Quality Management (TQM)
Responsibilities of the manager
Develop employee participation
Understand human relations
Create a viable and workable organization
Demonstrate effective leadership
Seek knowledge in managerial concepts, apply them.
Liabilities of management
Principal and agent
Employer and employee
financial responsibility of manager
Indemnification - losses above and beyond
Other funeral professionals are colleagues rather than competitors.
Relationship should encourage interaction and professional growth.
Professional associates within funeral service
Facilitate communications and an understanding of funeral service.
Interaction should reflect social responsibility.
Service to client families and community.
Professional associates among allied professionals
Areas of management:
process of acquiring, training, developing, motivating, appraising and retaining a sufficient quantity of qualified employees to perform necessary activities.
Developing activities and an organizational climate conducive to maximum efficiency and worker satisfaction. Personnel management
Human resources management
Advertising a job without discrimination.
Use of reference
New employee orientation
Prohibits discrimination based on Race, Color, Religion, Sex, Pregnancy or National Origin.
Civil Rights Act of 1064 as amended in 1972 & 1978
Prohibits discrimination for individuals over 40 years of age.
Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967
prohibits discrimination in pay based on sex
Equal Pay Act 1963
prohibits discrimination based on handicap
Rehabilitation Act of 1973
prohibits discrimination against any qualified individual with a disability.
***Americans with Disabilities act of 1990
Laws Effecting Employment Practices:
Avoiding discrimination against:
Operations of the business
Assignment of duties of the employees, and
with client families
Types of discrimination
Most effective method of ensuring all employees know & understand policies & procedures of business.
Important to all employees
Includes work practices and policies
Philosophy and mission statement
Health, dental, and life insurance
Vacation and sick time
Typically 90 days from date of hire. Includes initial performance review
New employees to determine pre-existing conditions
Current employees to maintain health
Related to OSHA requirements
Organization of the firm
Table of organization (organizational chart)
Lines of communication
Assignment of duties
Responsibilities of personnel
Appearance and proper attire
- Appropriate to duties being performed
- Conform to local customs RURAL vs. URBAN
Job turnover is very costly
- Indirect costs associated with interviewing and training
- Indirect costs of disrupted work and idle equipment
- Positive employer - employee relationships will ensure/enhance employee retention
Important considerations in retaining employees
Use of employee manual
Involvement in the decision making process
Recognition and reward
Private criticism or reprimand
Twelve guidelines- employee relations
1. Identify the behavior, direct criticism at action – not the person
2. Specific Criticisms – “You missed the March 15th deadline for your report.”
3. Can the behavior be changed? (Foreign accents, baldness etc. not changeable.)
4. Use “I” & “we” to stress you want to work out the issue, rather than making threats.
5. Make sure the other person understand the reason for criticism.
6. Don’t belabor the point. Short & Sweet, no lectures.
7. Offer incentives for changed behaviors. Offer to help the person correct the problem.
8. Don’t set a tone of anger or sarcasm. Both are counterproductive.
9. Show understanding for his or her feelings.
10. When documenting criticisms, cool down before writing the letter or memo. Be sure on the person it is intended for see it.
11. Start off by saying something good.
12. At the end, reaffirm your support and confidence in the person.
Efficient utilization and adequate regulation of assets, revenue, expenditures, and capitol rights.
Accounting system Budgeting Establishment of priorities
Management of capitol
Management of assets and liabilities which includes:
Accounts Receivables (money owed to you)
Fixed assets (long term investments in your business)
Financial management monitoring to include:
Price structure re-evaluation
Financial ratios (assets vs. liabilities, expenses vs. revenues)
Process of planning and executing development, pricing, promotion, and distribution of an organization’s goods and services
Marketing mix and merchandising
Art of making the public aware of service or commodities that a business has for sale.
- inducing the public to have a positive feeling about a particular business.
Public relations -
Obtaining and maintaining of adequate work space and funeral equipment.
Facilities and equipment requirements
State licensing laws of TEXAS
Must meet fire and safety, health ordinances
At least one motorized funeral coach, does not mention it has to be in operating condition.
Display room with minimum 5 adult caskets, must be at least 2 full sizes.
Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) – parking spaces, wheelchair accessible, RR, H2O Fountains, seating the chapel made available, telephone.
Administration and supervision of office duties and functions
Deal positively with the changes occurring within the profession.
Conduct and care for the dead & the grieving in the most supportive and help manner.
Hallmark in the American Funeral Service to survive the 21st Century is to care for the dead and serve the living in a way that enhances the dignity of the mankind.
New Philosophy in funeral service
Enter 21st Century kicking, screaming & holding onto practices we have clung to for the last 100 years
Old Philosophy in funeral service
Future trends in funeral service:
Population and death projections
- Life expectancy doubled the last 90 years
- Fastest growth of people those over 80 years of age
- Death rate will increase by 2010
Where death will occur
Changes in traditional family unit
Better educated consumer.
Religion and clergy
Increase in alternative forms of disposition.
Changes in merchandise and alternatives in traditional merchandise.