2nd Quarter- SOCIOLOGY Quarter FInal Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2nd Quarter- SOCIOLOGY Quarter FInal Deck (116):
1

knowing a family’s __________ and ___________ is helpful in guiding funeral directors toward the relationship they might have with a family.

structure and government

2

responsibilities of the family unit

Obligation to care for other members;
Obligation to teach and maintain discipline;Obligation to give direction;
Obligation to motivate.

3

an organized, flexible, purposeful, group centered, time-limited response to the death of an individual conducted with reverence, dignity and respect

funeral rite

4

Some purposes of funeral rites include the following:

The opportunity to receive and express love.
To show respect for the family, friends and the deceased.
A chance to express grief.
To gain emotional support through sharing.
To get a face to face confrontation with death which confirms reality that death has occurred.Gives one the opportunity for farewell through ritual.
Shows a dramatic presentation of the facts that a life has been lived by reflecting upon memories of the deceased.
Helps establish an emotional stability through a social support network.
Establishes a socially accepted climate for mourning.
Meets the needs theologically, psychologically and socially of those who mourn.

5

a funeral rite that follows a prescribed ritual or ceremony which may be dictated either by religious belief or social customs

traditional funeral rite

6

a funeral rite that is adjusted to the needs and wants of those directly involved; one which has been altered to suit the trends of the time

adaptive funeral rite

7

a funeral rite that deviates from the normal or prescribed circumstances of established customs

non-traditional funeral rite

8

a funeral rite that is in essence devoid of religious connotation

humanistic funeral rite

9

any disposition of a human remains which is completely devoid of any form of funeral rite at the time of disposition

immediate disposition

10

a funeral rite which may be construed as being identifiable with a pre-literate (before the written word) society (American Indians).Some ancient ceremonies like those of the American Indian tribes. Many of these are personal and secret to be viewed only by the tribal members

primitive funeral rite

11

the individual crafting of products is replaced by manufacturing of goods utilizing mass production techniques

Industrialization

12

factors influencing industrialization

Families were forced to look for work outside family unit 
Family dependent on outside resources to meet needs 
Loss of craftsmanship and alienation of worker from basic skills 
Factories produce same goods faster, cheaper and more volume

13

the change from rural (country) to urban (city) in character

Urbanization

14

the creation of a system which governs through departments and subdivisions, managed by sets of officials following and inflexible routine

Bureaucratization

15

current changes affecting funeral service

Extended Life expectancy (LONGEVITY)
Death in institutions

16

Social factors affecting the funeral rite. Three areas that may affect funeral selections

Freedom of choice - mobilityo
Class or Social Level – more elaborateo
Economic Position

17

The categorization of individuals by money, prestige and power. It includes a ranking of social status (social class/ position) in groups such as upper, middle, and lower class

Social Stratification

18

key points about social stratification

Funeral rite may represent a status symbol.
The lower social stratification of Americans tend to experience the highest frequency of death.Statistically poor people spend the most on funerals

19

an individual’s economic assets (income).

wealth

20

a person’s reputation or influence arising from success, achievement or other favorable attributes

Prestige

21

the ability of an individual or group to implement wishes or policies with or without the cooperation of others

power

22

a social grouping in which members possess roughly equivalent, culturally valued attributes.

social class

23

the movement (up or down) of an individual from one social class to another.

Social mobility

24

Sociologists believe that the following factors affects social mobility:

Parental encouragement
An effective education
Ambition
Hard work

25

The area in which a family lives will affect the type of funeral rite selected.For example, communities based in areas where logging is extremely common one might find that a wooden casket will be more desired

geographic location

26

the tendency of off-spring to move away from the area in which they were born. This will have an effect on the funeral rite. When parents pass on, the children might bring trends of the area in which they currently live in

Neo-localism

27

There is a tendency that the higher the educational level an individual has, the less likely to have a traditional funeral.They are more likely to choose cremation instead of earth burial

--

28

According to sociologist religion serves several functions. Including:

1. Providing social cohesion.
2. Supporting and maintaining social control.
3. Promoting social change.

29

This has changed the funeral rite by placing more regulations on the funeral process.For example, laws requiring transportation permits, death certificates, etc.

government

30

SIGNIFICANT CHANGES IN FUNERALIZATIONRECENT AND DURING THE TWENTIETH CENTURY.

1. Location of the funeral rite and preparation of the body. Increase presence and utilization of funeral home. Years past many of the activities involved in funeralization was conducted in the private home.
2. Change in direct involvement of family and friends. More reliance and responsibility on the funeral director and staff.
3. Cost of funeral is no longer focused on the price of the casket. The casket now represents a smaller portion of the total expense of the funeral. Affected by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) rule required itemization. Charges for professional service rendered.
4. Influence of the automobile Selection of the funeral home is no longer influenced as much by the proximity to the family home. Families are able to travel further for better service. Burial could occur at a greater distance from home (instead of burial in family or local cemeteries).
5. Influence of the airplane Provides transportation of human remains over long distances in a short period of time. Facilitates the neo-local (the tendency of off-springs to move away from the area in which they were born) family members during time of death.
6. Influence of disposition Transition from “Church yard” cemeteries to “memorial park” cemeteries.
Increase in: Cremation / Body donation / Entombment - placing a casketed human remains in a mausoleum. / Immediate disposition
7. Influence of organized religion (a) Some churches are opening and operating funeral homes(b) Some clergy are becoming more active in the arrangement conference with the family
.8. Influence of immigration - Cultural diversity represented by the presence of a growing variety of ethnic and cultural groups in the United States.

31

Modern trends in funeral service

1. Population & Death Projection
2. Where death will occur
3. Changes in traditional family unit
4. Religion & Clergy
5. Increase of Alternative forms of Disposition
6. Changes in Merchandise (alternative to original).
7. Regulatory changes in Funeral Licensing
8. Better educated consumers
9. Personnel recruitment & Retention.
10. Increase in the number of Women in Funeral Service.
11. Improve funeral Home Operating Efficiency
12. Computerized & Internet.
13. Funeral Home a resource center – aftercare
14. Acquisition Companies/
15. Effects of continuing education on Funeral Education and Funeral Service Licensees.
16. Changes in Funeral Service education.
17. Pre-need Service / aftercare services.

32

the science of social group study

sociology

33

rite with the body present

funeral

34

rites without the body present

memorial service

35

both funeral and memorial service

funeral rite

36

patterns identifiable in all cultures

cultural universal

37

relocation, travel

mobility

38

loss of craftsmanship

industrialization

39

increased concentrated population

urbanization

40

strict departmental standards with little or no variation of the standards

bureaucratization

41

loss of individual identity

anonymity

42

completely devoid of any form of funeral rite

immediate disposition

43

standard of behavior non-compulsive

folkway

44

must behavior enforced by government

law

45

an action with NO symbolic content

ceremony

46

an action WITH symbolic content

ritual

47

standard of behavior based on sacred beliefs

religion

48

abstract patterns of and for living and dying

culture

49

MUST behavior of the basic and important patterns of ideas and acts of a people

mores

50

dictates what one MUST NOT DO

taboos

51

social behavior as dictated by tradition

customs

52

a method by which social values are learned

enculturation

53

The science or study of social groups; the study of forms of social groups or modes of an organization, the processes which tend to maintain or change these forms of organizations and the relations between groups.

sociology

54

A systematic effort to develop general principles about a particular subject matter, based on actual observation and stated in a form that can be tested by any competent person.... This is done in sociology.

science

55

Science is usually divided into two main branches. What are they?

Natural science - anatomy, biology, chemistry, etc.

Social Sciences - pyschology, sociology, etc.

56

Psychology vs. Sociology(explain the one difference we need to remember)

Psychology is focused more on individuals.
Sociology is focused more on groups.

57

The funeral director's responsibility

Funeral directors must understand the cultural requirements of their client families. Each family is unique with many of their needs and wants based on the culture of the family.

58

When does the learning process begin?

at birth

59

Consists of abstract patterns (rules, ideas, and beliefs) shared by members of society and for living and dying, which are learned directly or indirectly.

culture

60

learned by someone teaching (school is a form)

direct learning

61

items that are learned through observation

indirect learning

62

According to sociologist, ________ is one of the major carriers of culture.

language

63

a division, or smaller identifiable unit of a culture, connected to that culture by common traits, having unique traits to itself.

subculture

64

or shared ideas about desirable goals

values

65

After language, one distinguishing aspect of culture is?

values

66

The various social values that are learned by individuals is referred to as?

enculturation or socialization.

67

The method by which the social values are internalized (learned).

enculturation (Socialization)

68

subculture may be based upon:

Geographic location
Religious beliefs
Ethnic groups
Language

69

Culture and subculture determine:

customs
taboo
mores
laws

70

These are procedures involving death that are required not necessarily by a culture, but by those who govern.

laws

71

an event which allows those who have something in common with each other to deal with one another in regard to that which they share

social function

72

Social behavior as dictated by the traditions of the people.-- developed by enculturation.

customs

73

Must-behavior which dictates the individual must abstain from certain acts dealing with death

taboos

74

Rites with the human body not present.

memorial service

75

Rites with the body present

funeral

76

Any event performed in a solemn and prescribed manner.

rite

77

An all inclusive term used to encompass all funerals and/or memorial services

funeral rite

78

Ideas and beliefs or, and for, the living and dying, which are identical in all cultures.

cultural universal

79

Why is the funeral rite considered cultural universal?

because some type of a response to death can be found in all cultures

80

a funeral rite that is adjusted to the needs and wants of those directly involved. One which has been altered to suit the trends of the time.

adaptive funeral rite

81

cultural universal includes:

1. Announcement of the death. 2. Some type of care for the dead. 3. A method of disposition. 4. Memorialization. 5. Ceremony or ritual.

82

a funeral rite that follows a prescribed ritual or ceremony which may be dictated either by religious belief or social custom.

traditional funeral rite

83

a funeral rite that is in essence devoid of religious connotation

humanistic funeral rite

84

a funeral rite which may be construed as being identifiable with a pre-literate society (American Indians

primitive funeral rite

85

any disposition of a human remains which is completely devoid of any form of funeral rite at the time of disposition

immediate disposition

86

Behaviors which are constructed as somewhat less compulsive than mores of the same society, and do not call for a strong reaction from the society if violated.Example is pulling to side of the road and taking off your hat when a procession passes.

folkways

87

instrumental action dealing with death is expressional, it is charged with symbolic content expressing among other things, attitudes of the participants, possible onlookers.

ceremony

88

specified method of procedure

rules

89

of or relating to geography concerning the topography of a specific region.

geographic

90

having or showing belief in and reverence for God or a deity, especially as it is reflected in the practice of religion: implies adherence to religion in both belief / practice.

religious

91

basic division or groups of mankind, distinguished by customs, characteristics of race, derived from the Greek ethos meaning “people”.

ethnic

92

Begins at the arrangement conference and ends at the graveside

Sociology

93

Earliest Ethnic Group: tribes kinship – based ethnic group; andCountry non-kinship – based ethnic groups, evolution of the state.

--

94

Begins at the time of death and ends at one's acceptance of death

Psychology

95

Social behavior as dictated by the tradition of the people in that culture.

customs

96

Consists of abstract patterns (rules, ideas, and beliefs) shared by members of society and for living and dying, which are learned directly or indirectly.

culture

97

a division, or smaller identifiable unit of a culture, connected to that culture by common traits, having unique traits to itself.

subcultures

98

things to which socially created meaning is given

symbols

99

Most members of a culture and subculture develop pride in their cultural and subculture beliefs and customs, but some begin to think that their culture is superior to all others. This is called

ethnocentrism

100

As a funeral director, you need to stay under the idea of ,________ that is, keep the emotional idea that all cultures are equal and pertinent!

cultural relativism

101

Examples of some cultural universals are

establishment of families (marriage), establishment of rules and regulations for orderly living (government), and YES, the responses to death of a member of their culture (funeral rites).

102

the father rules the family; power is passed to the oldest male child

Patriarchal

103

the mother rules the family

Matriarchal

104

the male and female have equal rights, duties, and governing power.

Equalitarian

105

a household or family unit includes father and mother, all their children (except married daughters), their son’s wives and children (except married daughters).

extended (joint) family

106

Characteristics of a joint family

Agriculturally based.
Economically self-sufficient unit (usually grow own food)
Patriarchal form of government.
Restricted mobility. (Usually due to duties of the farm)
Religious, usually begin religion by teaching children bible stories
Tend to be Conservative.

107

membership within the household includes one man, one woman and their children, if any.

Nuclear family

108

Characteristics of a nuclear family

May be patriarchal, matriarchal, or equalitarian.
In past, the nuclear family was patriarchal with one income earner - father.
Today, nuclear family is equalitarian and a two-income family.
Economics is structured around the total income unit.
Religion is usually institutional based.
Highly mobile (will move if another area offers better opportunities)
More liberal in thought, dress, and actions

109

cluster of two or more nuclear families united by social bonds of security, protection and help. A neighborhood, apartment complex.

Modified extended family

110

Characteristics of a modified extended family:

Begins with a nuclear family which then develops kinships and/or friendship with other nuclear families for security, protection, or help.

111

membership consists of one adult, either male or female and his/her children.

Single parent family

112

membership consists of one male and one female and the children from their previous marriages, and may include children from the present marriage.

Blended family

113

shared ideas about desirable goals

values

114

study of group behavior patterns

sociology

115

study of individual behavior patterns

psychology

116

Of the following, which one is a social behaviorcustoms, taboos, mores, laws, folkways

customs