Flashcards in 2nd Quarter- SOCIOLOGY Exam 2 Deck (52):
knowing a family’s __________ and ___________ is helpful in guiding funeral directors toward the relationship they might have with a family.
structure and government
responsibilities of the family unit
Obligation to care for other members;
Obligation to teach and maintain discipline;
Obligation to give direction;
Obligation to motivate.
an organized, flexible, purposeful, group centered, time-limited response to the death of an individual conducted with reverence, dignity and respect
Some purposes of funeral rites include the following:
The opportunity to receive and express love.
To show respect for the family, friends and the deceased.
A chance to express grief.
To gain emotional support through sharing.
To get a face to face confrontation with death which confirms reality that death has occurred.
Gives one the opportunity for farewell through ritual.
Shows a dramatic presentation of the facts that a life has been lived by reflecting upon memories of the deceased.
Helps establish an emotional stability through a social support network.
Establishes a socially accepted climate for mourning.
Meets the needs theologically, psychologically and socially of those who mourn.
a funeral rite that follows a prescribed ritual or ceremony which may be dictated either by religious belief or social customs
traditional funeral rite
a funeral rite that is adjusted to the needs and wants of those directly involved; one which has been altered to suit the trends of the time
adaptive funeral rite
a funeral rite that deviates from the normal or prescribed circumstances of established customs
non-traditional funeral rite
a funeral rite that is in essence devoid of religious connotation
humanistic funeral rite
any disposition of a human remains which is completely devoid of any form of funeral rite at the time of disposition
a funeral rite which may be construed as being identifiable with a pre-literate (before the written word) society (American Indians).
Some ancient ceremonies like those of the American Indian tribes. Many of these are personal and secret to be viewed only by the tribal members
primitive funeral rite
the individual crafting of products is replaced by manufacturing of goods utilizing mass production techniques
factors influencing industrialization
Families were forced to look for work outside family unit
Family dependent on outside resources to meet needs
Loss of craftsmanship and alienation of worker from basic skills
Factories produce same goods faster, cheaper and more volume
the change from rural (country) to urban (city) in character
the creation of a system which governs through departments and subdivisions, managed by sets of officials following and inflexible routine
current changes affecting funeral service
Extended Life expectancy (LONGEVITY)
Death in institutions
Social factors affecting the funeral rite. Three areas that may affect funeral selections
o Freedom of choice - mobility
o Class or Social Level – more elaborate
o Economic Position - ……………
The categorization of individuals by money, prestige and power. It includes a ranking of social status (social class/ position) in groups such as upper, middle, and lower class
key points about social stratification
Funeral rite may represent a status symbol.
The lower social stratification of Americans tend to experience the highest frequency of death.
Statistically poor people spend the most on funerals
an individual’s economic assets (income).
a person’s reputation or influence arising from success, achievement or other favorable attributes
the ability of an individual or group to implement wishes or policies with or without the cooperation of others
a social grouping in which members possess roughly equivalent, culturally valued attributes.
the movement (up or down) of an individual from one social class to another.
Sociologists believe that the following factors affects social mobility:
An effective education
The area in which a family lives will affect the type of funeral rite selected.
For example, communities based in areas where logging is extremely common one might find that a wooden casket will be more desired
the tendency of off-spring to move away from the area in which they were born. This will have an effect on the funeral rite. When parents pass on, the children might bring trends of the area in which they currently live in
There is a tendency that the higher the educational level an individual has, the less likely to have a traditional funeral.
They are more likely to choose cremation instead of earth burial
According to sociologist religion serves several functions.
1. Providing social cohesion.
2. Supporting and maintaining social control.
3. Promoting social change.
This has changed the funeral rite by placing more regulations on the funeral process.
For example, laws requiring transportation permits, death certificates, etc.
SIGNIFICANT CHANGES IN FUNERALIZATION
RECENT AND DURING THE TWENTIETH CENTURY.
1. Location of the funeral rite and preparation of the body. Increase presence and utilization of funeral home. Years past many of the activities involved in funeralization was conducted in the private home.
2. Change in direct involvement of family and friends. More reliance and responsibility on the funeral director and staff.
3. Cost of funeral is no longer focused on the price of the casket. The casket now represents a smaller portion of the total expense of the funeral. Affected by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) rule required itemization. Charges for professional service rendered.
4. Influence of the automobile Selection of the funeral home is no longer influenced as much by the proximity to the family home. Families are able to travel further for better service. Burial could occur at a greater distance from home (instead of burial in family or local cemeteries).
5. Influence of the airplane Provides transportation of human remains over long distances in a short period of time. Facilitates the neo-local (the tendency of off-springs to move away from the area in which they were born) family members during time of death.
6. Influence of disposition Transition from “Church yard” cemeteries to “memorial park” cemeteries.
Increase in: Cremation / Body donation / Entombment - placing a casketed human remains in a mausoleum. / Immediate disposition
7. Influence of organized religion
(a) Some churches are opening and operating funeral homes
(b) Some clergy are becoming more active in the arrangement conference with the family.
8. Influence of immigration - Cultural diversity represented by the presence of a growing variety of ethnic and cultural groups in the United States.
Modern trends in funeral service
1. Population & Death Projection
2. Where death will occur
3. Changes in traditional family unit
4. Religion & Clergy
5. Increase of Alternative forms of Disposition
6. Changes in Merchandise (alternative to original).
7. Regulatory changes in Funeral Licensing
8. Better educated consumers
9. Personnel recruitment & Retention.
10. Increase in the number of Women in Funeral Service.
11. Improve funeral Home Operating Efficiency
12. Computerized & Internet.
13. Funeral Home a resource center – aftercare
14. Acquisition Companies/
15. Effects of continuing education on Funeral Education and Funeral Service Licensees.
16. Changes in Funeral Service education.
17. Pre-need Service / aftercare services.
the science of social group study
rite with the body present
rites without the body present
both funeral and memorial service
patterns identifiable in all cultures
loss of craftsmanship
increased concentrated population
strict departmental standards with little or no variation of the standards
loss of individual identity
completely devoid of any form of funeral rite
standard of behavior non-compulsive
must behavior enforced by government
an action with NO symbolic content
an action WITH symbolic content
standard of behavior based on sacred beliefs
abstract patterns of and for living and dying
MUST behavior of the basic and important patterns of ideas and acts of a people
dictates what one MUST NOT DO
social behavior as dictated by tradition