Flashcards in 2nd Quarter- MICROBIOLOGY Exam 2 Deck (149):
the lowest temperature at which an organism can live
the highest temperature at which an organism can live.
the temperature at which organism grows best.
organisms that grow best at cold temperature. Usually below 20 degrees Celsius or less than 68 degrees Fahrenheit
(CHRO- CRY- COLD)
most pathogens - bacteria that prefer medium temperature. Usually between 20 - 40 degrees C. The optimum of most pathogens is normal body temperature of 98.6 F or 37 C. When the body temperature goes up (fever) it does so to kill the organism.
helps to kill most pathogens that like medium temperature.
The optimum of most pathogens is normal body temperature of
98.6 F or 37 C.
organisms that grow best at warm temperatures. Usually above 40 degrees C
(THINK THERMAL UNDERWEAR TO WARM UP OR A THERMOS OF HOT COFFEE)
ultra violet light is bactericidal which means what?
will kill bacteria but will not kill all organisms because over a period of time organisms exposed to excessive amounts of ultra violet light will genetically mutate and develop resistance.
Ultraviolet light which ___________ be seen will ______ bacteria
Deals primarily with solutions.
deals with something you cannot see without a microscope.
(Osmosis- diffusion through membranes)
the substance or solution dealing with osmotic pressure present in greater quantity
the substance or solution dealing with osmotic pressure present in lesser quantity
name the different osmotic pressure
is the type of Osmotic Pressure necessary to properly study bacterial cells and red blood cells to ensure no change in size, shape, and volume
the number of particles entering the cell roughly equals the number of particles leaving. The shape and integrity of the cell is maintained
excess solute. If a bacteria is placed in this type of solution it changes the shape of the cell. There will be more particles leaving than entering. The end result – the cell will atrophy
to wrinkle or shrink
the shrinkage of a bacterial cell when placed in a Hypertonic Solution
the shrinkage of a red blood cell when placed in a Hypertonic Solution
beneath or below - less solute than normal. If a bacteria cell is placed in this solution, more particles will enter the cell than leave
The bursting of a bacterial cell when placed in Hypotonic Solution
(MOP) mop below the counter surface
The bursting of a red blood cell when placed in Hypotonic Solution
living organisms living together
relationship of two or more organisms that is of benefit to all involved
relationship of two or more organisms that is of benefit to one w/ no effect to the other e.g. normal flora (living in on the human body)
relationship between two or more organisms which is of benefit to one, harmful to the other.
a relationship between two or more organisms which produces an effect, be it good or bad, not possible by each one alone. Both parties have to do their part.
a relationship between two or more organisms in which the presence of one inhibits or prevents the growth of the other; mutual opposition or contrary action.
entry establishment & multiplication of pathogens within a host. Any disease caused by a microorganism
the mere presence of infectious material, with no reaction produced.
the ability of an organism to cause infection in man.
True or False
A great number of pathogenicites are not infectious
relative to produce disease, the likelihood that the pathogenic organism will cause infection in man.
a dilution or weakening in the virulence of an organism. This will reduce or destroy its pathogenicity.
micro-organisms naturally living in and on a host. Present on both dead and living bodies - the reason for disinfecting during embalming.
Indigenous flora - (normal flora)
resistant, as in bacteria, to the action of a drug or drugs. Bacterial having developed a resistance to a drug.
An infection in which the causative agent (organism) comes from outside the body. Could come from on the body or from the air
An infection which is caused by microorganisms which are normally present within the body.
An infection of sudden onset and short duration, less than one year.
Examples: Meningococcemia -
Creutzfeldt - Jakob (CJ) -
A fatal form of blood poisoning
early form of Alzheimer
Creutzfeldt - Jakob (CJ) -
An infection of slow onset and long duration. Greater than a year.
An infection capable of being transmitted, either directly or indirectly, from host to host. Host could be a person or animal
means highly communicable. The likelihood that the
transmission to others will occur is greater
are antagonism to another organism.
An infection that is constantly present to a greater or lesser degree in a community
Examples: cold and flu
an infection which attacks a large number of people in a community in a short period of time
Worldwide epidemic; an infection which becomes an epidemic in a number of countries at the same time
Example: Flu of 1919 20 million died
An infection which occurs only occasionally (now and then) in a community.
The initial (first) infection of a mixed infection.
The first of two infections
An infection due to (caused by) two or more organisms.
When a person or animal is suffering from two or more infections at the same time.
The second and generally more complicating infection in a mixed infection.
* is usually more lethal.
An infection in which the pathogenic organisms remain confined to a particular area.
Examples: Abscessed tooth
An infection confined to a particular area, but from which the bacteria spread to other parts of the body. An infection spreads
Infection throughout, spread generally over the body by the bloodstream or lymphatic system. Sepsis, Septicemia - organisms in the blood
A condition in which bacteria are in the bloodstream, but are not multiplying there. Presence of bacteria in the blood
Invasion of the bloodstream by pathogenic organisms, with their subsequent multiplication therein. Common name is “blood poisoning.”
the presence of an organism in the blood.
The presence of toxins (poisonous substances) in the blood.
An infection, which occurs during the course of a chronic disease and cause death.
The presence of infectious material, without a reaction necessarily being produced. This term can also refer to inanimate objects
inanimate objects. Seen only with a microscope
The invasion of the body by macroscopic parasites, i.e., those able to be seen with the unaided eye. Maggots
unaided eye to see the infestation
The ability (or likelihood) of a microorganism to produce disease.
implies a weakening or reduction in the virulence of a microorganism.
An infection primarily of animals that may be secondarily transmitted to man
- inflammation of the brain
caused by mosquitoes
Encephalitis and Malaria
mosquitoes biting migratory birds
mosquitoes biting monkeys
A hospital-acquired infection; one obtained while in the hospital.
Literally, pus in the blood; a form of septicemia caused by pyogenic (pus-forming) bacteria. Puss in the blood. Staph. Strept
An infection which causes a fever (elevated temperature).
A sudden, severe, and overwhelming infection, such as spinal meningitis.
Infection throughout the body, having been spread by the bloodstream or lymphatic system.
Sepsis, Septicemia - organisms in the blood
A seemingly inactive infection; it is apparently held in check by the body’s defense, but may spread when the body resistance is reduced.
Cold sores, Syphilis. They go away but are not dead. In the case of syphilis the disease has gone to the second stage.
An infection in which the clinical symptoms are not recognized or immediately detectable. TB
An infection in which all the symptoms are easily recognized.
Rubella (German measles), Mumps
An infection in which all the symptoms are not easily recognizable, meaning that it could be confused with another infection. Not typical - TB. Complaint of one problem Intestinal pain and find out it is TB of the intestines
Any microorganism that causes disease in man
Any microorganism that does not cause disease in man.
types of pathogens
strict (obligate) pathogens
Microorganisms that live and grow in and on the human body. Most are non-pathogens. Indigenous
Microorganisms that produce infection only under especially favorable conditions, that is, they await the right opportunity to cause infection. Pathogens contained in a person’s normal flora are usually these, since they alone cannot penetrate unbroken skin.
Microorganisms that will cause an infection in man every time that a person is exposed to them.
They are never a part of one’s normal flora.
A must behavior
Example: Strept throat
strict (obligate) pathogens
factors influencing virulence
Poison substance produced all the time and continuously released to the outside of certain bacteria;
e.g. Tetanus, Cholera
Poison substance only released when the cell producing the bacteria is destroyed; e.g.: Spinal Meningitis.
The ability of the bacteria to release a poison when the white blood cells of
the body kills the bacteria
substances, which speed up the rate of a chemical reaction, without being used up or destroyed in the process
an enzyme that helps spread bacteria. Increase the bacteria’s ability to spread to other parts of the body
Hyaluronidase (Spreading factor)
an enzyme that clots human plasma.
the liquid portion of non-clotted human blood.
an enzymes that dissolves blood clots. Especially if the clot has caused MI (heart attack). Persons having a heart attack or stroke caused by a blood clot would receive this enzyme to prevent other blood clots.
jelly like material located on the outside of certain bacteria.
capsules (slime layer)
The presence of the slime layer will:
Enhances the bacteria’s virulence.
Protects the organism from phagocytosis
the best protection an organism can possess is the ability to produce spores.
A person or animal that possess an organism after recovery from the infection it causes. The greatest risk of spreading an infection is immediately after recovery
active carrier of infection
A person or animal that has a particular organism, even though they have never suffered from the infection it causes, and passes it along to another
Example: Typhoid Mary.
passive carrier infection
sources of infection
A person or animal currently ill of the infection.
Chronic animal or human carriers
an animal or person that possesses an organism and transmits to someone else during recovery from the infection it causes
convalescent carrier of infection
modes of transmission of infections
types of direct transmission of infections
physical contact (sexually transmitted disease)
droplet infection (aerosol- sneezing)
congenital- rubella (German measles) contacted during pregnancy from mother to child
types of indirect transmission of infections
a. Food poisoning (could taste fine at time of eating)
b. Milk (bovine strain of TB)
c. Fomites - lifeless inanimate objects - doorknobs, money, trocars, toilet seats, etc.
d. Water (water signs – approved: Dept. of Health)
e. Soil - tetanus or lock jaw.
f. Vectors - an animal usually an insect that is serving as an indirect mode of transmission.
portals of entry and exit of pathogens
1. Skin and mucous membranes - staph. These organisms are living on your skin and are opportunistic and invades the body through a cut. The skin is the largest organ of the body (liver the largest organ in the body)
2. Respiratory tract - TB, pneumonia (infection of lung tissue itself)
3. Digestive tract - cholera, loss of 10quarts of water per day), dysentery
4. Genito - urinary tract (gut) - STD’s (sexually transmitted disease’s)
5. Placenta - rubella (German measles) transmitted from mother via the placenta into developing infant. Rubella always means German measles.
(we would prefer a mother to be sick with 10 day measles so as not to be sick with this)
vehicles of exit pathogens
pus and lesion exudates
Waste product from the digestive tract - dysentery, cholera extremely watery stool
a substance made of a combination of saliva and mucus brought up from the respiratory tract.
produced by three sets of salivary glands. Vehicle of exit of disease spread to humans
cytomegalovirus (CID) rabies
a vehicle for exit of disease spread to humans.
Example: hepatitis A & B
A vehicle of exit of disease to humans; consists of both dead and living pus and blood.
Examples: abscesses, decubitus ulcers – bed sores
Pus and lesion exudates
contain enzymes that kill bacteria
FACTORS INFLUENCING THE OCCURRENCE OF AN INFECTION:
1. Portal of entry of the pathogens and elective localization – when an organism chooses to restrict itself to a particular area or region of the body this is called “elective localization.”
2. Number of organisms - the more in number of an organism, the more likely you will be infected.
3. Virulence of the organism - the likelihood an organism will cause infection in humans.(measuring how likely it is to cause infection.) Example: 1918 Flu – they died.
4. Resistance of the host - having a good immune system. Good resistance to the organism. (Deals with immune ty of the host). Opportunistic or secondary infection.
Health or illness = N (V)
N - number of organisms
V - virulence of the organism
R - resistance
N x V divided by - R
when an organism chooses to restrict itself to a particular area or region of the body this is called
inhibits microorganisms from entering the body.
Mechanical Defenses (Anatomical)
skin mucous membranes - soft moist tissue side the nose, ear, mouth, and eyes.
Bony encasements - skull, ribcage.
- the bodies total response to an injury.
an agent that causes the body temperature to rise
the substance that stimulates the production that causes a fever. may come from within or from outside the body.
(white blood cells) scavengers - large cell ingestors like packman.
enzymes present in tears which kill bacteria
(HCL) hydrochloric acid produced within the stomach to kill bacteria.
chemical defenses (body secretions)
Specific protein produced within the body in response to a specific foreign protein or bacteria
virus neutralizing - a substance produced by the body cells. Can be enhanced by vaccination.
Another name for antibodies is
The study of immunity.
loss of water
what is the ph of the human body?
above 7 on the ph scale is
below 7 on the ph scale is
most bacteria reproduce by what
binary fission (simple transverse division)
a visible growth of bacteria growing on a culture medium (nutrient broth, blood agar)
the material you attempt to grow bacteria
to grow in a laboratory setting bacteria in a medium, (nutrient broth or agar)
all bacteria- pathogens are so classified and must have a source of carbon. Bacteria that obtain their food from inorganic matter. They manufacture their own carbon
all organism that cause infection in a mans are classified as this and obtain their food from organic matter (food that contains carbon) Humans contain carbon glucose
name the three types of heterotrophic bacteria
strict (obligate) saprophytes
strict (obligate) parasites
a must behavior- a bacteria that must obtain its food from dead organic matter
strict (obligate) saprophytes
Heterotrophic that must obtain their food from living organic matter
strict (obligate) parasites
Heterotrophic bacteria that can obtain their food from dead or living organic matter
Heterotrophic bacteria that must have presence of oxygen to live
strict (obligate) aerobes
bacteria that must have absence of oxygen to live
strict (obligate) anaerobes
bacteria that must have the presence of oxygen to live but at a level less than that required of humans