2nd Quarter- MICROBIOLOGY Exam 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2nd Quarter- MICROBIOLOGY Exam 2 Deck (149):
1

the lowest temperature at which an organism can live

minimum temperature

2

the highest temperature at which an organism can live.

maximum temperature

3

the temperature at which organism grows best.

optimum temperature

4

organisms that grow best at cold temperature. Usually below 20 degrees Celsius or less than 68 degrees Fahrenheit

Psychrophiles (cryophiles)

(CHRO- CRY- COLD)

5

most pathogens - bacteria that prefer medium temperature. Usually between 20 - 40 degrees C. The optimum of most pathogens is normal body temperature of 98.6 F or 37 C. When the body temperature goes up (fever) it does so to kill the organism.

Mesophiles

(MESO MEDIUM)

6

helps to kill most pathogens that like medium temperature.

fever

7

The optimum of most pathogens is normal body temperature of

98.6 F or 37 C.

8

organisms that grow best at warm temperatures. Usually above 40 degrees C

thermophiles

(THINK THERMAL UNDERWEAR TO WARM UP OR A THERMOS OF HOT COFFEE)

9

ultraviolet means

above violet

10

ultra violet light is bactericidal which means what?

will kill bacteria but will not kill all organisms because over a period of time organisms exposed to excessive amounts of ultra violet light will genetically mutate and develop resistance.

11

Ultraviolet light which ___________ be seen will ______ bacteria

cannot
kill

12

Deals primarily with solutions.
deals with something you cannot see without a microscope.

Osmotic Pressure
(Osmosis- diffusion through membranes)

13

the substance or solution dealing with osmotic pressure present in greater quantity

solvent

14

the substance or solution dealing with osmotic pressure present in lesser quantity

solute

15

name the different osmotic pressure

Isotonic solutions
Hypertonic solutions
Hypotonic solutions

16

is the type of Osmotic Pressure necessary to properly study bacterial cells and red blood cells to ensure no change in size, shape, and volume

the number of particles entering the cell roughly equals the number of particles leaving. The shape and integrity of the cell is maintained

Isotonic Solution

17

excess solute. If a bacteria is placed in this type of solution it changes the shape of the cell. There will be more particles leaving than entering. The end result – the cell will atrophy

hypertonic solution

18

to wrinkle or shrink

atrophy

19

the shrinkage of a bacterial cell when placed in a Hypertonic Solution

plasmolysis

20

the shrinkage of a red blood cell when placed in a Hypertonic Solution

crenation

21

beneath or below - less solute than normal. If a bacteria cell is placed in this solution, more particles will enter the cell than leave

hypotonic solution

22

The bursting of a bacterial cell when placed in Hypotonic Solution

plasmoptysis
(MOP) mop below the counter surface

23

The bursting of a red blood cell when placed in Hypotonic Solution

hemolysis

24

living organisms living together

symbiosis

25

relationship of two or more organisms that is of benefit to all involved

mutualism

26

relationship of two or more organisms that is of benefit to one w/ no effect to the other e.g. normal flora (living in on the human body)

commensalism

27

relationship between two or more organisms which is of benefit to one, harmful to the other.

parasitism

28

a relationship between two or more organisms which produces an effect, be it good or bad, not possible by each one alone. Both parties have to do their part.

synergism

29

a relationship between two or more organisms in which the presence of one inhibits or prevents the growth of the other; mutual opposition or contrary action.

antagonism

30

entry establishment & multiplication of pathogens within a host. Any disease caused by a microorganism

infection

31

the mere presence of infectious material, with no reaction produced.

contamination

32

the ability of an organism to cause infection in man.

Pathogenicity

33

True or False
A great number of pathogenicites are not infectious

True

34

relative to produce disease, the likelihood that the pathogenic organism will cause infection in man.

virulence

35

a dilution or weakening in the virulence of an organism. This will reduce or destroy its pathogenicity.

attenuation

36

micro-organisms naturally living in and on a host. Present on both dead and living bodies - the reason for disinfecting during embalming.

Indigenous flora - (normal flora)

37

resistant, as in bacteria, to the action of a drug or drugs. Bacterial having developed a resistance to a drug.

drug-fast

38

An infection in which the causative agent (organism) comes from outside the body. Could come from on the body or from the air

exogenous infection

39

An infection which is caused by microorganisms which are normally present within the body.

endogenous infection

40

An infection of sudden onset and short duration, less than one year.
Examples: Meningococcemia -
Creutzfeldt - Jakob (CJ) -

acute infection

41

A fatal form of blood poisoning

Meningococcemia

42

early form of Alzheimer

Creutzfeldt - Jakob (CJ) -

43

An infection of slow onset and long duration. Greater than a year.
Example: Alzheimer

chronic infection

44

An infection capable of being transmitted, either directly or indirectly, from host to host. Host could be a person or animal

communicable infection

45

means highly communicable. The likelihood that the
transmission to others will occur is greater

contagious

46

are antagonism to another organism.

antibiotics

47

An infection that is constantly present to a greater or lesser degree in a community
Examples: cold and flu

endemic

48

an infection which attacks a large number of people in a community in a short period of time

epidemic infection

49

Worldwide epidemic; an infection which becomes an epidemic in a number of countries at the same time
Example: Flu of 1919 20 million died

pandemic infection

50

An infection which occurs only occasionally (now and then) in a community.

sporadic infection

51

The initial (first) infection of a mixed infection.
The first of two infections

primary infection

52

An infection due to (caused by) two or more organisms.
When a person or animal is suffering from two or more infections at the same time.

mixed infection

53

The second and generally more complicating infection in a mixed infection.

* is usually more lethal.

secondary infection

54

An infection in which the pathogenic organisms remain confined to a particular area.
Examples: Abscessed tooth

local infection

55

An infection confined to a particular area, but from which the bacteria spread to other parts of the body. An infection spreads

focal infection

56

Infection throughout, spread generally over the body by the bloodstream or lymphatic system. Sepsis, Septicemia - organisms in the blood

general infection

57

A condition in which bacteria are in the bloodstream, but are not multiplying there. Presence of bacteria in the blood

Bacteremia

58

Invasion of the bloodstream by pathogenic organisms, with their subsequent multiplication therein. Common name is “blood poisoning.”

Septicemia

59

the presence of an organism in the blood.

sepsis

60

The presence of toxins (poisonous substances) in the blood.

toxemia

61

An infection, which occurs during the course of a chronic disease and cause death.

terminal infection

62

The presence of infectious material, without a reaction necessarily being produced. This term can also refer to inanimate objects

contamination

63

inanimate objects. Seen only with a microscope

fomite

64

The invasion of the body by macroscopic parasites, i.e., those able to be seen with the unaided eye. Maggots

infestation

65

unaided eye to see the infestation

macroscopic

66

The ability (or likelihood) of a microorganism to produce disease.

virulence

67

implies a weakening or reduction in the virulence of a microorganism.

attenuation

68

An infection primarily of animals that may be secondarily transmitted to man

zoonatic

69

- inflammation of the brain

encephalitis

70

caused by mosquitoes

Encephalitis and Malaria

71

mosquitoes biting migratory birds

encephalitis

72

mosquitoes biting monkeys

malaria

73

A hospital-acquired infection; one obtained while in the hospital.
Staph. (Staff)

Nosocomial

74

Literally, pus in the blood; a form of septicemia caused by pyogenic (pus-forming) bacteria. Puss in the blood. Staph. Strept

pyemia

75

An infection which causes a fever (elevated temperature).

pyremia

76

A sudden, severe, and overwhelming infection, such as spinal meningitis.

fulminating

77

Infection throughout the body, having been spread by the bloodstream or lymphatic system.
Sepsis, Septicemia - organisms in the blood

generalized infection

78

A seemingly inactive infection; it is apparently held in check by the body’s defense, but may spread when the body resistance is reduced.
Cold sores, Syphilis. They go away but are not dead. In the case of syphilis the disease has gone to the second stage.

latent infection

79

An infection in which the clinical symptoms are not recognized or immediately detectable. TB

inapparent infection

80

An infection in which all the symptoms are easily recognized.
Rubella (German measles), Mumps

typical infection

81

An infection in which all the symptoms are not easily recognizable, meaning that it could be confused with another infection. Not typical - TB. Complaint of one problem Intestinal pain and find out it is TB of the intestines

atypical infection

82

Any microorganism that causes disease in man

pathogen

83

Any microorganism that does not cause disease in man.

non-pathogen

84

types of pathogens

normal flora
opportunists
strict (obligate) pathogens

85

Microorganisms that live and grow in and on the human body. Most are non-pathogens. Indigenous

normal flora

86

Microorganisms that produce infection only under especially favorable conditions, that is, they await the right opportunity to cause infection. Pathogens contained in a person’s normal flora are usually these, since they alone cannot penetrate unbroken skin.

opportunists

87

Microorganisms that will cause an infection in man every time that a person is exposed to them.
They are never a part of one’s normal flora.
A must behavior
Example: Strept throat

strict (obligate) pathogens

88

factors influencing virulence

toxin production
enzymes
capsules
endospores

89

Poison substance

toxin production

90

Poison substance produced all the time and continuously released to the outside of certain bacteria;
e.g. Tetanus, Cholera

exotoxins

91

Poison substance only released when the cell producing the bacteria is destroyed; e.g.: Spinal Meningitis.
The ability of the bacteria to release a poison when the white blood cells of
the body kills the bacteria

endotoxins

92

substances, which speed up the rate of a chemical reaction, without being used up or destroyed in the process

enzyme(organic catalyst)

93

an enzyme that helps spread bacteria. Increase the bacteria’s ability to spread to other parts of the body

Hyaluronidase (Spreading factor)

94

an enzyme that clots human plasma.

coagulase

95

the liquid portion of non-clotted human blood.

plasma

96

an enzymes that dissolves blood clots. Especially if the clot has caused MI (heart attack). Persons having a heart attack or stroke caused by a blood clot would receive this enzyme to prevent other blood clots.

Fibrinolysin (steptokinase)

97

jelly like material located on the outside of certain bacteria.

capsules (slime layer)

98

The presence of the slime layer will:

Enhances the bacteria’s virulence.
and
Protects the organism from phagocytosis

99

cell ingestion

phagocytosis

100

the best protection an organism can possess is the ability to produce spores.

endospores

101

A person or animal that possess an organism after recovery from the infection it causes. The greatest risk of spreading an infection is immediately after recovery

active carrier of infection

102

A person or animal that has a particular organism, even though they have never suffered from the infection it causes, and passes it along to another
Example: Typhoid Mary.

passive carrier infection

103

sources of infection

A person or animal currently ill of the infection.
or
Chronic animal or human carriers

104

an animal or person that possesses an organism and transmits to someone else during recovery from the infection it causes

convalescent carrier of infection

105

outside environments

environment

106

modes of transmission of infections

direct transmission
indirect transmission

107

types of direct transmission of infections

physical contact (sexually transmitted disease)
droplet infection (aerosol- sneezing)
congenital- rubella (German measles) contacted during pregnancy from mother to child

108

types of indirect transmission of infections

a. Food poisoning (could taste fine at time of eating)
b. Milk (bovine strain of TB)
c. Fomites - lifeless inanimate objects - doorknobs, money, trocars, toilet seats, etc.
d. Water (water signs – approved: Dept. of Health)
e. Soil - tetanus or lock jaw.
f. Vectors - an animal usually an insect that is serving as an indirect mode of transmission.

109

portals of entry and exit of pathogens

1. Skin and mucous membranes - staph. These organisms are living on your skin and are opportunistic and invades the body through a cut. The skin is the largest organ of the body (liver the largest organ in the body)

2. Respiratory tract - TB, pneumonia (infection of lung tissue itself)

3. Digestive tract - cholera, loss of 10quarts of water per day), dysentery

4. Genito - urinary tract (gut) - STD’s (sexually transmitted disease’s)

5. Placenta - rubella (German measles) transmitted from mother via the placenta into developing infant. Rubella always means German measles.
(we would prefer a mother to be sick with 10 day measles so as not to be sick with this)

110

vehicles of exit pathogens

feces
urine
semen
vaginal secretions
sputum
saliva
blood
pus and lesion exudates
tears

111

Waste product from the digestive tract - dysentery, cholera extremely watery stool

feces

112

a substance made of a combination of saliva and mucus brought up from the respiratory tract.

sputum
(phlegm)

113

produced by three sets of salivary glands. Vehicle of exit of disease spread to humans
cytomegalovirus (CID) rabies

saliva (spit)

114

a vehicle for exit of disease spread to humans.
Example: hepatitis A & B

blood

115

A vehicle of exit of disease to humans; consists of both dead and living pus and blood.
Examples: abscesses, decubitus ulcers – bed sores

Pus and lesion exudates

116

contain enzymes that kill bacteria

tears

117

FACTORS INFLUENCING THE OCCURRENCE OF AN INFECTION:

1. Portal of entry of the pathogens and elective localization – when an organism chooses to restrict itself to a particular area or region of the body this is called “elective localization.”

2. Number of organisms - the more in number of an organism, the more likely you will be infected.

3. Virulence of the organism - the likelihood an organism will cause infection in humans.(measuring how likely it is to cause infection.) Example: 1918 Flu – they died.

4. Resistance of the host - having a good immune system. Good resistance to the organism. (Deals with immune ty of the host). Opportunistic or secondary infection.

Health or illness = N (V)
R

N - number of organisms
V - virulence of the organism
R - resistance
N x V divided by - R

118

when an organism chooses to restrict itself to a particular area or region of the body this is called

localization

119

inhibits microorganisms from entering the body.

Mechanical Defenses (Anatomical)

120

anatomical barriers

skin mucous membranes - soft moist tissue side the nose, ear, mouth, and eyes.
Bony encasements - skull, ribcage.

121

- the bodies total response to an injury.

inflammation

122

an agent that causes the body temperature to rise
the substance that stimulates the production that causes a fever. may come from within or from outside the body.

pyrogens

123

(white blood cells) scavengers - large cell ingestors like packman.

phagocytosis

124

enzymes present in tears which kill bacteria

lysozyme

125

(HCL) hydrochloric acid produced within the stomach to kill bacteria.

gastric juice

126

chemical defenses (body secretions)

lysozymes
and
gastric juices

127

Specific protein produced within the body in response to a specific foreign protein or bacteria

antibodies

128

virus neutralizing - a substance produced by the body cells. Can be enhanced by vaccination.

interferon

129

Another name for antibodies is

immunogoblin (Ig).

130

The study of immunity.

Immunology

131

excess water

edema

132

loss of water

dehydration

133

what is the ph of the human body?

7.4-7.5

134

above 7 on the ph scale is

alkaline

135

below 7 on the ph scale is

acidic

136

most bacteria reproduce by what

binary fission (simple transverse division)

137

a visible growth of bacteria growing on a culture medium (nutrient broth, blood agar)

bacterial colony

138

the material you attempt to grow bacteria

medium

139

to grow in a laboratory setting bacteria in a medium, (nutrient broth or agar)

culture

140

all bacteria- pathogens are so classified and must have a source of carbon. Bacteria that obtain their food from inorganic matter. They manufacture their own carbon

autotrophic bacteria

141

all organism that cause infection in a mans are classified as this and obtain their food from organic matter (food that contains carbon) Humans contain carbon glucose

heterotrophic bacteria

142

name the three types of heterotrophic bacteria

strict (obligate) saprophytes
strict (obligate) parasites
faculatative bacteria

143

a must behavior- a bacteria that must obtain its food from dead organic matter

strict (obligate) saprophytes

144

Heterotrophic that must obtain their food from living organic matter

strict (obligate) parasites

145

Heterotrophic bacteria that can obtain their food from dead or living organic matter

facultative bacteria

146

Heterotrophic bacteria that must have presence of oxygen to live

strict (obligate) aerobes

147

bacteria that must have absence of oxygen to live

strict (obligate) anaerobes

148

bacteria that must have the presence of oxygen to live but at a level less than that required of humans

microaerophiles

149

bacteria that can live in the presence or absence of oxygen

facultative bacteria