2nd Quarter- MICROBIOLOGY Exam 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2nd Quarter- MICROBIOLOGY Exam 3 Deck (97):
1

inhibits microorganisms from entering the body

Mechanical Defenses (Anatomical barriers)

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types of anatomical barriers

skin, mucous membranes - soft moist tissue inside the nose, ear, mouth, and eyes. Bony encasements - skull, ribcage

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types of defenses of the body against infection

mechanical, physiological, chemical

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functional defenses of the body against infection

physiological defenses

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types of physiological defenses of the body against infection

inflammation, fever, phagocytosis

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the body’s total response to an injury

inflammation

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the substance that stimulates the production that causes a fever. They may come from within or from outside the body. They are literally an agent that causes the body temperature to rise

pyrogens

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(white blood cells) scavengers - cell ingestion like pac man.

phagocytosis

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specific chemical substances found within the body that protect us from infection

chemical defense

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useful substance (glands).

body secretions

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types of chemical defenses

body secretions, antibodies, interferon

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(type of body secretion)enzymes present in tears, which kill bacteria

Lysozyme

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(type of body secretion)- (HCL) hydrochloric acid produced within the stomach to kill bacteria

gastric juice

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Specific proteins produced by the body in response to a specific foreign protein (antigen) or bacteria

antibodies

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trigger production of antibodes

antigens

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medical name for antibodies chemical defense against infection.

Immunoglobulins (Ig)

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virus neutralizing substance produced individually by the body cells. Can be enhanced by vaccination

interferon

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glycoprotein substance developed in response to, and interacting specifically with antigen. Once formed in the body, it will remain forever. It may decrease over the years. Another name is immunogoblin (Ig). They are classified as chemical defenses against specific infection in the body

antibodies

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The study of immunity

immunology

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a highly developed state of resistance of the body in response to a specific infection or disease.

immunity

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the absence or suppression of factors responsible for development of immunity.

Susceptibility

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Characteristics of Antigen

very specific; true. A true antibody is a substance produced by the body and has bivalent receptor sites (two ends) and only formed in response to antigens. A true antibody will have bivalent receptor sites; if incomplete, (only one end) an allergic reaction can occur

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kinds of immunity

Natural (innate) immunity
Acquired immunity

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type of immunity that is inborn (at conception, not birth)

natural (innate) immunity

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three types of natural (innate) immunity

racial
species
individual- interferon

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A type of natural immunity where a particular race is predisposed to a disease

racial immunity

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Red Blood Cells are not round but look like a sickle, absence or lack blood

sickle cell anemia

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distemper non-human disease

species

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obtained immunity through the natural life process (not born with)

acquired immunity

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type of immunity- natural life process. The body was actively involved in producing antibodies.

naturally acquired immunity

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The body was actively involved in producing antibodies. Having a disease and recovering from it since you didn't die from the disease

Naturally acquired Active immunity

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naturally . The body was not directly involved in producing antibodies

Naturally acquired Passive immunity

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types of Naturally acquired Passive immunity

colostrum
breast milk
placental transfer

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not obtained through the natural life process but by a shot or immunization.

artificially acquired immunity

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artificially acquired active; given when healthy to build up immunity against the infections
Example DPT

vaccine

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artifically acquired active; poisonous substances that have been modified in the laboratory setting and used to convey immunity by shot or vaccine

toxoids

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Active immunity _______ than passive immunity, however, it is _________ established. The immunity established would never be formed in the body without _______________

lasts longer
more slowly
the vaccination

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a weakened active strain, live or dead (flu shot)

attenuated strain

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not sure how to make this a card. I don't really know how it goes with the artificially acquired active

Live or dead microorganisms, extracts (PPD) - purified protein derivative, the TB skin test

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Conveyed by artificial means instantaneously through a pre-formed antibody. Last the shortest time -7- 10 days

artificially acquired passive immunity

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examples of artificially acquired passive immunity

immune serum, antiserum, gamma globulin.

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level of controls of microrganisms

sterilization
disinfection
antisepsis

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process of completely removing and destroying ALL LIFE FORMS and their products (endospores and exotoxins) in or on a substance

sterilization

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the process of destruction of ALL PATHOGENIC organism (infectious agents) from an object through physical or chemical means

disinfection

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literally means against the presence of microorganisms - the prevention of growth of microorganisms, without necessarily killing them. [By preventing or inhibiting the growth of causative organisms.]

antisepsis

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the agent to achieve antisepsis. It does not kill a germs but prevents its growth and multiplication

antiseptic

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physical methods of control of microorganisms

Scrubbing
Heat - .
(1) Incineration

(2) Dry heat -

(3) Moist heat

Cold temperatures
Ultraviolet light (UV)

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The actual mechanical method of moving hands with a soft scrub brush and using a disinfectant soap.

scrubbing

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most common physical method of control of microorganisms

heat

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three types of heat methods of control of microorganisms

incineration
dry heat
moist heat

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Burning / Flaming as a lab technique.

incineration

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Convection oven

dry heat

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three types of moist heat

Boiling - liquid state to gaseous state.
Free-flowing steam
Steam under pressure: autoclave

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The best method; chemical or physical to achieve true sterilization

steam under pressure: autoclave

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Name the constant temperature, standard pressure, and standard exposure time for autoclave

Standard temperature: 121 degrees C – 250 degrees F
Standard pressure: 15 lbs.
Standard exposure time: 15 minutes

*15lbs @ 121 degrees for 15 minutes

If constant for temperature, pressure, and time, all forms of life known to man will be killed.

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_________ will ______ down the rate of decomposition. This is achieved because it __________ moisture.

Refrigeration
slow
removes

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means above violet, it is bactericidal, which means it will kill most bacteria. Bacteria, however, will build up an immunity to it

ultra violet light

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chemical methods to control microrganisms

Disinfectants






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Chemical agents used to disinfect. Substances which rid pathogens on objects.

disinfectants

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Chemical disinfectant that kills a wide variety of germs or pathogens (microorganisms).

germicide

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Chemical disinfectants which kill bacteria.

bactericide

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Chemical disinfectants which kill fungi, yeast, moles, and fungus, i.e., athlete’s foot and ringworm’s.

fungicide

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Chemical disinfectants which kill virus.

viricide

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Chemical disinfectants used to kill insects. Vectors

insecticides

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Chemical disinfectants used to kill larva of insects.

larvacide

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Factors influencing the action of disinfectants (8)

(1) Nature of the disinfectant - fit the disinfectant to the problem.

(2) Concentration of the disinfectant, as you increase the concentration, you increase the disinfectant’s ability.

(3) Nature of the material to be disinfected.

(4) Number of microorganisms present.

(5) Kind of microorganism present i.e., if a germ uses a germicide.

(6) Time of exposure to disinfectant - if you increase exposure time, you will increase the disinfectant’s quality.

(7) Temperature of disinfectant during exposure. If you increase the water temperature, the disinfectant will be diluted into, you will increase the effectiveness.

(8) pH of disinfectant during exposure.

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Disinfectants suitable for mortuary procedures

Halogens
Alcohols
Aldehydes
Phenolic compounds
Quatenary ammonium compounds (quats)

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types of halogens or salt formers (2)

Hypochlorites

Iodophors

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(bleaches) e.g.: NAOCL - household bleach. Standard solution is 1:10 dilution; standard external disinfectant per CDC (Center for Disease Control).

hydrochlorites

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iodine; betadine (rust or yellow color) contains iodine.

iodophors

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types of alcohols

Ethyl alcohol
Isopropyl alcohol

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use grain to produce and the only alcohol fit for human consumption

ethyl alcohol (ethanol)

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rubbing alcohol - Disinfectant

isopropyl alcohol

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alcohol deprived of hydrogen

Aldehydes

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types of aldehydes

Formalin

Glutaraldehyde

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(Formaldehyde solution) mixture of formaldehyde gas and water. Compare strength using an index.

formalin

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2% as Cidex. A better disinfectant than formalin (formaldehyde) but not as good as a preservative.

Glutaraldehyde

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the number of grams of formaldehyde gas dissolved in a 100 milliliter of solution. Also represent percentage of formaldehyde within that product or container.

index

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The highest index used in embalming is _____ The saturation point is (what percentage) by weight - (what percentage) by volume.

36 index.
37%
40%

80

is 8 to 10 grams - the lowest index used in embalming.

jaundice

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disinfectants based on the chemical phenol

Phenolic compounds

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types of phenolic compounds

Phenol
Cresol
Hexachlorophene

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(carbolic acid) - it is acidic in terms of pH.

(1) Used as a cauterizer - to sear off or prevent leakage from tissue.

(2) Used as a bleaching agent

phenol

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a member of the phenolic compound. It's household name is Lysol

Cresol

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a phenolic compound which is a topical disinfectant

hexachlorophene

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also called quats

Quatenary ammonium compounds

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examples of chemicals used as a quartenary ammonium compounds

Benzalkonium Chloride
Zephrian Chloride

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german measles

naturally acquired active

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anti serum

artificially acquired passive

90

tetanus toxoid

artificially acquired active

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transfer of placental antibodies

naturally acquired passive

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colostrum

naturally acquired passive

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immunization

artificially acquired active

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gamma globin

artificially acquired passive

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lobar pneumonia

naturally acquired active

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vaccination

artificially acquired active

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immune system

artificially acquired passive