446 Aquatic Ecology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 446 Aquatic Ecology Deck (279)
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91

hepatotoxin examples

Anatoxin-a, saxotoxin, neosaxotoxins, Nostoc, Anabaena, Oscillatoria, Microcystis

92

Lipo-polysaccharides

cause skin irritation (dissolve skin)

93

neurotoxin bioaccumulation

accumulate in nervous system (cerebral), show up with age

94

fertilizer use and red tides

increased fertilizer use tightly correlated with increased # of red tides

95

TP, TN and toxin forming algae concentration

both positive correlations
steeper increase in toxin forming algae with increased TP then increased TN

96

concentration of microcystin vs. toxigenic biomass

increasing. the more biomass present, the more of the toxic variety

97

microcystin

class of toxins produced by certain freshwater cyanobacteria

98

ubiquity of cyanobacteria

terrestrial, freshwater, brackish, marine, widespread = potential for widespread human exposure

99

β-N-methylamino-L-alanine

BMAA- novel neurotoxic amino acid from cyanobacteria (and many algal taxa around the world), ubiquitous, accumulate and slowly release through time, found in brain tissues of people who die of ALS and other neurodegenerative disease

100

BMAA in guam

high concentration in coralloid roots of cycad trees-- concentrated in fleshy seed-- flying fox forage on seed-- accumulate-- Chamorro people eat them-- die of ALS-PDC. 50-100X incidence rate anywhere else

101

BMAA biomagnification

free BMAA--cyanobacteria 0.3µg/g--- cycad 37µg/g -- flying foxes 3556µg/g -- Chamorro people

102

Chamorro people

highest rate of neurodegenerative disease in the world

103

water categories based on nutrient richness

Oligotrophic- nutrient poor
Mesotrophic- good clarity, average nutrient
Eutrophic- enriched with nutrients, good plant growth, possible algal blooms
Hypertrophic- excessively enriched with nutrients, poor clarity, devastating algal blooms

104

lake Taihu

went from oligotrophic (1960) to eutrophic-hypertrophic in 90's
population growth, livestock growth
toxins produced

105

ALS

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

106

BMAA exposure in desert dust

soldiers found to have high levels of BMAA, suffering from neurodegenerative disease from Iraq desert pools. dormant until rain season. inhaled, especially around Gulf War.

107

sporadic ALS in Annapolis, Maryland

found to come from Chesapeake Bay blue crabs, BMAA in Chesapeake Bay food web common risk factor

108

fa cai, Mandarin; and fat choy, Cantonese

Nostoc grown and harvested to make soup during New Years celebration. Banned now, mostly artificial, but some still contain Nostoc (BMAA).

109

driving force in aquatic system

foodweb
changes to food web have cascading effects

110

ecosystem productivity depends on

transfer efficiency of nutrients and energy along foodweb- affected by changes in predators and prey- any affects = cascading changes

111

shifts in food web structure and function, implications for

predator/prey effects
contaminant transfer
biodiversity
productivity

112

energy transfer efficiency in small plankton, small fish system

less efficiency transfer

113

predatory invertebrates

comets with small fish for prey, added system complexity

114

food web views

bottom-up - ratio dependent, more inputs = more outputs
top-down - limits bottom up, predators self regulate

115

predator self regulation

eat too much and use up all resources

116

k

carrying capacity of system

117

low k

low resources, nutrients, space

118

predator/prey biomass vs. carrying capacity models

R-O model: predator increase w/ k, prey constant
A-G: both increase but predator growth is smaller than prey growth
Getz: both increase parallel to each other, prey higher
predator self limitation: prey increases, predator constant

119

Fretwell trophic level biomass vs environmental productivity

alternate trophic levels have parallel relationships
level 3 grazes down level 2 which helps increase level 1

120

Fretwell-Oksanen trophic level biomass vs environmental productivity

predators keep prey constant
levels 1&3 parallel increase, 2 constant while they increase
when 2 is increasing, level 1 is constant