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Flashcards in A Deck (42):
1

the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 percent of the time.

absolute threshold

2

the process by which the eye's lens changes shape to focus the image of near objects on the retina.

accommodation

3

adapting one's current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information.

accommodation

4

a neurotransmitter that, among its functions, triggers muscle contraction

acetylcholine

5

a desire for significant accomplishment: for mastery of things, people, or ideas; for attaining a high standard

achievement motivation

6

a test designed to assess what a person has learned.

achievement test

7

the encoding of sound, especially the sound of words.

acoustic encoding

8

in classical conditioning, the initial stage of learning; the phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response.

acquisition

9

a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon. The action potential is generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon's membrane.

action potential

10

empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies. A feature of Rogers' client-centered therapy

active listening

11

the sharpness of vision.

acquity

12

our tendency to form judgments (of sounds, of lights, of income) relative to a "neutral" level defined by our prior experience.

adaptation-level phenomenon

13

the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence

adolescence

14

a pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneys. The adrenals secrete the hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline), which help to arouse the body in times of stress.

adrenal glands

15

sustained exercise that increases heart and lung fitness; may also alleviate depression and anxiety.

aerobic exercise

16

any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy

aggression

17

a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem

algorithm

18

the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state

alpha waves

19

unselfish regard for the welfare of others.

altruism

20

a progressive and irreversible brain disorder characterized by gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and, finally, physical functioning.

Alzheimer's disease

21

the loss of memory

amnesia

22

drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes.

amphetamines

23

two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion.

amygdala

24

an eating disorder in which a normal weight person (usually an adolescent female) diets and becomes significantly (15 percent or more) underweight yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve.

anorexia nervosa

25

a personality disorder in which the person (usually a man) exhibits a lack( of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members.

antisocial personality disorder

26

psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety

anxiety disorders

27

impairment of language, usually caused by left-hemisphere damage either to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke's area (impairing understanding).

aphasia

28

scientific study that aims to solve practical problems

applied research

29

a test designed to predict a person's future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn.

aptitude test

30

(Al) the science of designing and programming computer systems to do intelligent things and to simulate human thought processes such as intuitive reasoning, learning, and understanding language.

artificial intelligence

31

interpreting one's new experience in terms of one's existing schemas.

assimilation

32

areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking.

association areas

33

learning that certain events (a response and its consequences in operant conditioning) occur together

associative learning

34

an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation.

attachment

35

a belief and feeling that predisposes one to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events.

attitude

36

the theory that we tend to give a causal explanation for someone's behavior, often by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition.

attribution theory

37

the sense of hearing.

audition

38

unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings.

automatic processing

39

the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart). Its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms.

autonomic nervous system

40

estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common.

availability heuristic

41

a type of counter conditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol).

aversive conditioning

42

the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages are sent to other neurons or to muscles or glands

axon