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Ap Psychology > T-Z > Flashcards

Flashcards in T-Z Deck (44):
1

goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goats.

task leadership

2

early speech stage in which the child speaks like a telegram- "go car" -using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting "auxiliary" words.

telegraphic speech

3

a person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity

temperament

4

the portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear

temporal lobes

5

agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm.

teratogens

6

the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty.

testosterone

7

the brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla.

thalamus

8

the major active ingredient in marijuana; triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations.
the storage and retrieval of information.

THC

9

a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes.

Thematic Apperception Test

10

people's ideas about their own and others' mental states about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict

theory of mind

11

assumes that workers are basically lazy, error-prone, and extrinsically motivated by money and, thus, should be directed from above.

Theory X

12

assumes that, given challenge and freedom, workers are motivated to achieve self-esteem and to demonstrate their competence and creativity.

Theory Y

13

an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations.

theory

14

the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse

threshold

15

an operant conditioning procedure that rewards desired behavior A patient exchanges a token of some sort, earned for exhibiting the desired behavior, for various privileges or treats.

token economy

16

the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug's effect

tolerance

17

the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system.

long term memory

18

information processing guided by higher-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations.

top-down processing

19

a characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by inventories and peer reports

trait

20

conversion of one form of energy into another. In sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies into neural impulses.

transduction

21

In psychoanalysis, the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent).

transference

22

Schachter’s theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively abet the arousal

two-factor theory

23

beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements.

two-word stage

24

Friedman and Rosenman's term for competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people.

Type A

25

Friedman and Rosenman's term for easygoing, relaxed people.

Type B

26

according to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person.

unconditional positive regard

27

In classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (UCS), such as salivation when food is in the mouth.

unconditioned response

28

in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally-naturally and automatically-triggers a response.

unconditioned stimulus

29

according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware.
validity the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to

unconcious

30

in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals.

variable-interval schedule

31

in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses

variable-ratio schedule

32

the sense of body movement and position, including the sense of balance

vestibular sense

33

the tendency for vision to dominate the other senses.

visual capture

34

a laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals.

visual cliff

35

the encoding of picture images.

visual encoding

36

the distance from the peak of one tight or sound wave to the peak of the next.

wavelength

37

the principle that, to perceive their difference, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (rather than a constant amount).

Weber's law

38

the WAIS is the most widely used intelligence test; it contains verbal and performance (nonverbal) subtests.

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale

39

a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe.

Wernicke's area

40

the discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug

withdrawl

41

the sex chromosome found in both men and women. Females have two X chromosomes; males have one. An X chromosome from each parent produces a female.

X chromosome

42

the sex chromosome found only in males. When paired with an X sex chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child.

Y chromosome

43

Theory the theory that the retina contains three different color receptors-one most sensitive to red, one to green, one to blue-which when stimulated in combination can produce the perception of any colon

Young-Helmholtz Trichromatic

44

the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo.

zygote